Skip to main content

Full text of "The handy book on gardening"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



THE HANDY BOOK 



GAEDENING. 



GEOEGE GLENWf, P.B.S. 



tOSDOH 
isTOM ASD WEIGH") 

lAIEBSOSTEK BO*, 
13«. 1 

I Wee 0b6 Shilling. 




J 



'.'i 



POPTTULR TREATISES 

OS 

PRACTICAL GARDENING. 



paxes ONS SBXIiXiXNO XSJLCB. 



The following original Treatises, which have been written ezclusiyely 
for the Horticultural Magazine, are all perfect and complete in them- 
selves, and comprise every species of information that can be required. 
It may be named, also, as a distinguishing feature in these papers, that 
every subject is treated of in plain and familiar language, all technical 
terms are clearly explained, and every Treatise is written with a view to 
the instruction of those who have little or no previous knowledge of 
Gardening operations. All the Treatises are sold separately, price One 
Shilling each ; but, as there are many inferior Publications on the same 
subjects, the Proprietors have determined to issue them in no other 
form than as Numbers of the Horticultural MAaAznn& ; consequently 
they can only be procured by ordering them by the respective Numbert 
of the Magazine annexed to each. 

CULTURE OP THE CARNATION. 

Published in Part XX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price la. 

CULTURE OF THE SWEET WILLIAM. 

Published in Part XXI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1^. 

CULTURE OF THE ANEMONE. 
Published in Part XXV. of the Hort. Mag. Double Number, price 2s. 

CULTURE OF CALCEOLARIAS. 

Published in Part XXVIL of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTURE OP THE RANUNCULUS. 
Published in Part XXYIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is 

CULTURE OF THE POLYANTHUS. 

Published in Part XY. of the Horticultural Magazine. Priee Is, 

CULTIVATION OP THE IRIS. 

Published in Part XIV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1& 

CULTURE OP THE. k^k^XXMS.^ 
PoWiOier; in Part IX. of tiie B.oxl\w\ixura2L U»®ffls»s8u ^^evsifc.^^^ 



POPULAR TREATISES 



CULTURE OP TENDER AQUATICS. 

Published in Part XXIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price It. 

CULTIVATION OP THE SALVIA. 

Published in Part VIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE PRINOS. 

Published in Part XVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

PRUNING FOREST TREES. 

Published in Part I. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

COTTAGE GARDEN ALLOTMENTS. 

Published in Part XXI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE THUNBERGIA. 

Published in Part XXXIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTIVATION OP THE POTATO. 

Published in Part XI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE GARDEN PEA. 

Published in Part XV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTIVATION OP THE CARROT. 

Published in Part XIII. of the Hort Mag. (Double Number.) Price 2s. 

CULTIVATION OP PARSNIPS. 

Published in Part XIII. of the Hort. Mag. (Double Number.) Price 2s. 

CULTURE OP THE ARTICHOKE. , 

Published in Part XXI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF ASPARAGUS. 

Published in Part V. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE ALLAMANDA. 

Published in Part XLI. of the Horticultural Magaane. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP SWEET HERBS. 

I^ubL'shed in Vait XKIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1 j. 

CULTURE OF SMALL SALADS- 

f^bliMbed la JBurt JCXIV. jof the flartlcttUura\ lligaxme. ^xvc* \u 



ON PBAOTIOAL OARDEKINO. ^ 



CULTURE OP THE RADISH. 

Published in Part XXIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE ENDIVE. 

Published in Part XXII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE YEW TREK 

Published in Part XXY. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES. 

Published in Part XIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price ]«. 

CULTURE OF THE POPLAR. 

Published in Part XXXIII. of the Horticultural l^agazine. Price !«. 

CULTURE OP BROAD BEANS. 

Publisbed in Part XXIV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE WHORTLEBERRY. 

Published in Part XLY. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price- Is. 

CULTURE OP THE PILBERT. 

Published in Part XXYIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price !«. 

CULTURE OP THE SILVER PIR. 

Published in Part XXXII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE CEDAR. 

Publisbed in Part XXXIY. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE RAMPION. 

Published in Part XXI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price It. 

CULTURE OP THE WILD RANUNCULUS. 

Published in Part XV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE OLIVE. 

Published in Part L. of the Horticultural Magazine, Price It, 

CULTURE OP THE PIG. 

Published in Part XLIX. of the Hoti\ca\i>«^^^L»SE«^x^^ ^^^afeNx. 
PtaMwhad in Vnt L.I. o« tike Kot^^cw^^.^xT»i^^^^^'^ 



POPULAB TREATISES 



VEGETATION OP BORNEO. 

Published in Part XLI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

VEGETATION OP BRAZIL. 

Published in Part XXXIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1;. 

VEGETATION OP NEW HOLLAND. 

Published in Part LIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U, 

VEGETATION OF THE INDIAN ISLANDS. 

Published in Part XL 1 1, of the Horticultural Magazine. Price ]«. 

GROWING SPECIMEN PLANTS. 

Published in Part XLI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

WINDOW GARDENING. 

Published in Part VIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price !«. 

DRAINAGE OP GARDENS 

Published in Part IX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

MANAGEMENT. OP SUBURBAN GARDENS. 

Published in Part XLI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

FORMATION OP ARBORETUMS. 

Published in Part Y. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

SACRED AND CLASSICAL PLANTING. 

Published in Part XXIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

THE BETEL-NUT PALM. 

Published in Part XXXIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE ULEX, OR FURZE. 

Published in Part XXXIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

MANAGEMENT OP WARDIAN CASES. 

Published in Part VIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Priot Is. 

MANAGEMENT OP VILLA GARDENS. 

Publiihed in Part XLVII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

RUSTIC BUILDINGa 

PaHUhBd JA Part XLI V. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 



ON PRACTICAL GARDENING. 



SEA SIDE PLANTING. 

Published in Part XVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price It, 

NEW ESCULENT PLANTS. 

Published in Part XXYI. of the Horticultural Magazine* Price It. 

ORNAMENTAL TIMBER. 

Published in Part XXYIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Im, 

HORTICULTURAL BUILDINGS. 

Published in Part XXVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price It. 

DESCRIPTION OF GARDEN PEAS. 

Publi^ed in Part XV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U» 

MANAGEMENT OF WASTE LANDS. 

Published in Part lYl of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OT THE RHODODENDRON. 

Published in Part XLI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price !«. 

CULTURE OF THE OLEANDER. 

Published in Part XXXIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U. 

CULTURE OP THE GARDEN DAISY. 

Published in Part XLIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1«. 

CULTURil OP THE ACACIA. 

Published in Part XLVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U. 

CULTURE OF THE SPRUCE FIR. 

' Published in Part XXX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U. 

CULTURE OP THE IXIA. 

Published in Part XXXVII. of the Horticultural Magwdne. Price U. 

CULTURE OF THE LARCH TREE. 

Published in Part XXXII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OF THE CEDRUS DEODARA. 

Published in Part XXI. of the Horticultural l/L^i^tViifc, ^xsjsfcX*. 

CULTURE OF THBi ^^"BJ^ ^^CS^. 

PahliBhed ig Part XV. of the Honic\AVaT«\ W^^"»«»»* 



PCFULAB TREATISES 



CULTURE OF THE BUCKTHORN. 

Published in Part XXII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE EGG PLANT. 

Published in Part XX of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE SCOTCH PINE. 

Pttblished in Part XXIV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE HOVEA CELSII. 

Published in Part XXXVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP ESCULENT MUSHROOMS. 

Published in Part XXXIV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE DATURA ARBOREA. 

Published in Part ^XXVI. of the Horticultur&l Magazine. Price 1^. 

CULTURE OP RHUBARB. 

Published in Part XXIV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

LAWNS, SHRUBBERIES, &c. 

Published in Part XXXVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price I5. 

GARDENING POR COTTAGERS. 

Published in Part XL. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

GARDENING POR EMIGRANTS. 

Published in Part LI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

ORNAMENTAL WATER, &c. 

Published in Part XXXVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

MANAGEMENT OP GREENHOUSES. 

Published in Part XLVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

PLANTING ROCKY SCENERY. 

Published in Part XYIIL of the Horticultural Magazine. Price I5. 

PLANTING POR TIMBER. 

Published in Part XXV. of the Horticultural Magazme. Price Is. 

WASTE LAND PLANTING. 

JPabJiahed in Pan V of the Horticultural MagazVue. 1^i\q« \s 



ON PBACTIOAL GARDENINO. 



CULTIVATION OF THE CYTISUS. 

Published in Part XVI 11. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price I*. 

CULTIVATION OF. THE BALSAM. 

Published in Part XI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U. 

CULTIA^ATION OF THE GERANIUM. 

Published in Part II. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTUEE OF THE PEACH AND NECTARINE. 

Published in Part IV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U. 

CULTURE OF THE BEGONIA. 

Published in Part XXI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U. 

CULTURE OF THE ANDROMEDA. 

Published in Part XXXI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF THE ^SCHYNANTHUS. 

Published in Part XXVII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTIVATION OF PEAR TREES. 

Published in Part 11. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF THE LILY OF THE VALLEY. 

Published in Part XVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF THE HELIANTHEMUM. 

Published in Part XXVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1.?. 

CULTURE OF ALPINE OR ROCK PLANTS.. 

Published in Part XII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTIVATION OF THE RHUS. 

Published in Part XXX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF SPRING-FLOWERING BULBS. 

Published in Part XXXIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OF CEANOTHUS, OR RED ROOT. 

Published in Part XIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF TBSi "^iXiQ^X^SK^^. 

PahliBhed in Part X. of tY\e HotWoAlxaiN. U.%«M:vafe* ^^V6!«.X*- 



P0PI7LAB TREATISES 



CULTURE OP THE CABBAGE TRIBE. 

Published in Part LXI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price !«. 

CULTURE OP THE ORANGE TREE. 

Published in Part L. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1#. 

CULTURE OP THE MULBERRY. 

Published in Part LXI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Part Is. 

CULTURE OP THE ALSTRGEMERIA. 

Published in Part LVH. of the Horticultural Magzine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE PINE APPLE. 

Published in Part LHI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE MAGNOLIA. 

Published in Part LVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE COCKSCOMB. 
Published in Part LX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1^. 

CULTURE OP THE KALMIA. 

Published in Part LY* of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE JAPAN LILY. 

Published in Part LXL of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1.9. 
CULTURE OP THE HARDY AZALEAS. 

Published in Part LIV. of the Horticidtnral Magazine. Price Is. 

' CULTURE OP THE BORONIA. 

Published in Part LU. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE CYCLAMEN. 

Published in FlArt L7I. of the Horticultural Magazine. Prioe Is, 

CULTURE OP THE PETUNIA. 
Published in Part LIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE APPLE. 
AMIebedln Tail hXl. «f the Horticultuna Kngaziiie. Price U. 



ON PBAOTIOAL OABDBNING. 



Cultivation op the NEW HOLLAND PITCHER PLANT 

Published in Part XXXIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTIVATION OP RHUBARB. 

Published in Part XXIV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

^CULTURB OP WATER-CRESS. 

Published in Part XVII. of the Horticultural Magazine. P/ice Is, 

CULTURE OP SEA KALE. 

Published in Part XXIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP BIENNIAL PLOWERS. 

Published in Part XVII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTIVATION OP THE CROCUS. 

Published in Part XI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

KITCHEN GARDENS AND ORCHARDS. 

Published in Part XXV. of the Hort. Mag. (Double Number.) Price 1*. 

PLOWER AND PLEASURE GARDENS. 

Published in Part XXVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTURE OP PRUIT TREES. 

Published in Part XXXV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

PORMATION OP ROCK GARDENS. 

Published in Part I. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

GEOMETRICAL PLOWER GARDENS. 

Published in Part XXII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

ARBORETUMS AND SHRUBBERIES. 

Published in Part V. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

GREENHOUSES AND CONSERVATORIES. 

Published in Part XXVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

PRODUCnVB GARDENING. 

Published in Part XXX IL of the Horticultural Magazine. Price I«. 

CULTURE 01? t:iti& lELCiurras^^* , ^ 

PuWwhed in Part XXXIX. ol t\« U^t%xwjXixa»5L^^%«K^^ '^''*^ 



POFULAB TSBATI8E8 



CULTURE OP THE PETUNIA. 

Published in Part V. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1<. 

CULTURE OP THE BEECH TREE. 

Published in Part VII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE CINERARIA. 

Published in Part X. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE CAMELLIA JAPONICA. 

Published in Part XXXYIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is 

CULTURE OP THE DAHLIA. 

Published in Part XXXY I. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE WINTER PLOWERING HEATH. 

Published in Part XVII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE GENISTA. 

Published in Part XXII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U. 

CULTURE OP HARDY FERNS. 

Published in Part XLVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is'. 

CULTURE OP THE MESBMBRYANTHEMUM. 

Published in Part XXIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE NEAPOLITAN VIOLET. 

Published in Part III. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE BURTONIA. 

Published in Part XLIX of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE HARDY AQUATICS. 

Published in Part XVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price It. 

CULTURE OP THE CHIMNEY CAMl^ANULA. 

Published in Part IX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is* 

CULTURE OP STOVE PLANTS. 

Published in Part X. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price is. 

CULTURE OP PLUMBAGO LARPENTJu. 

J^uUuhedm Put XXXVIL of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is 



ON PBACnCAL GARDEHina 



CULTURE OP THE MYRTLE. 

Published in Part XXXIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF GREENHOUSE ORCHIDS. 

Published in Part XLII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U, 

CULTURE OP ALPINE PLANTS. 

Published in Part XL 1 1 1, of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE BANKSIA. 

Published in Part XLVl. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE CHOROZEMA. 

Published in Part XL VII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE DROSERA, OR SUN DEW. 

Published in Part XXX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE CHRYSANTHEMUM. 

Published in Part XXXYII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is 

CULTURE OP THE ACHIMENES. 

Published in Part III. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price it,, 

CULTURE OP THE AGAPANTHUS. 

Published in Part XXXVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1». 

CULTURE OP THE GARDENIA. 

Published in Part XXXVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTURE OP THE RIBES. 

Published in Part XVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Prire Is. 

CULTURE OP THE CLEMATIS. 

Published in Part XVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price is. 

CULTURE OP THE XERANTHEMUM. 

Published in Part.XX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

VEGETATION OP CALIPORNIA. 

Published in Part L. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

VEGETATION OP TB.^ k^^KlW^SYV^ '^J^^SSS^'^^ 
^hUsbsd in Part XY, of tiie Hoxxicviitva^^Vvt^^'^- ^«r«»^*- 



POPULAR TREATISES 



CULTURE OF WILD SPRING FLOWERS. 

Publlihed In Part XXV 1 1, of the Horticultural Magazine. Prite 1*. 

CULTURE OF THE ORANGE AND LEMON. 

Piibllihed in Part L. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price It. 

CULTURE OF POTATOES FROM SEED. 

Publiihed in Part XIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTURE OF BRITISH ORCHIDS. 

Publiahed in Part XXXIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTURE OF THE ARMERIA, OR THRIFT. 

Published in Part XLVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF THE GUTTA PERCHA TREE. 

Published in Part XXXVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTURE OF THE CUNNINGHAMIA. 

Published in Part XXXVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTURE OF FENNEL, CARDOONS, AND CHICORY. 

Published in Part XXIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price I*, 

CULTURE OF TOMATOES AND SPINACH. 

Published in Part XXII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF VEGETABLE MARROW. 

Published in Part XX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U, 

CULTURE OP THE SNOWDROP. 

Published in Part LI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price \s, 

CULTURE OF ESCULENT FUNGUSES. 

Published in Part XXXIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1j. 

CULTURE OF ONIONS. 

Published in Part XXIV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF THE HYDRANGEA. 

Published in Part XXXVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price U 

CULTURE OF THE HORSE RADISH. 

^za Part XXIIL of the Hordcuktuxal Migiixm^. ^m« \s. 




ON PRAOTIOAL aASDBNING. 



FORCING FLOWERS AND PLANTS. 

Published in Part XLIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price ]s 

IMPROVEMENT OP GARDENS AND PARKS. 

Published in Part XLYI. of die Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP HARDY HEATHS. 

Published in Part XIV. of the Horticultural Magazine. X^ice Is. 

CULTURE OP THE AURICULA. 

Published in Part XVII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE PANSY. 

Published in Part XVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTIVATION OP THE TULIP. 

Published in Part XXIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE GLADIOLUS. 

Published in Part XII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTIVATION OP THE PINK. 

Published in Part XXX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Pri(^ Is, 

CULTURE OP THE PICOTEE. 

Published in Part XX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE NARCISSUS. 

Published in Part XXIX. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price \s, 

CULTURE OP HARDY LILIES. 

Published in Part I. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price \s. 

CULTURE OP THE HYACINTH. 

Published in Part XXIX of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTIVATION OP THE ROSE. 

Published in Part VI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTURE OP THE TROPJEOLUM. 

Published in Part II. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTIVATION^ 0^ ^1^^^^. 

Pabliahed in Part V. ot the HotV\tM\\.>MaV '^u.^^^'^ft- ^t«.v.%*. 



FOPULAB TREATISES 



CULTURE OF HARDY PERENNIALS. 

Published in Part VII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OF WALLFLOWERS. 

Published in Part V. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OF HARDY ANNUALS. 

Published in Part IV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Pfice 1^. 

CULTURE OF WATER PLANTS. 

Published in Part XVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF HARDY EVERGREENS. 

Published in Part III. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF POPULAR FLOWERS. 

Published in Part XII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

GLBNNY'S DESCRIPTIVE TULIP LIST. 

Published in Part X. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

GLENNY'S DESCRIPTIVE DAHLIA LIST. 

Published in Part II. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTIVATION OF THE FUCHSIA. 

Published in Part XXXI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price I^. 

CULTIVATION OF GRAPE VINES. 

Published in Part I. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price l^r. 

CULTIVATION OF THE MELON. 

Published in Part II. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF THE AZALEA INDICA. 

Published in Part XXXII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTURE OF THE PASSION FLOWER 

Published in Part VIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1*. 

CULTIVATION OF FLOWERING THORNS. 

Published in Part XII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTIVATION OF THE HOLLY. 

Published in Pvt X of the Horticu\tuT8\'M.a|^«Livn,«« Wk« Is. 



ON PRACTICAL OAKDBNINO. 



HORTICULTURAL AND AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS. 

Published in Part XLI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OP THE VERBENA. 

Published in Part XXXIV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1#. 

CULTURE OF THE DAPHNE ODORATA. 

Published in Part XXXVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF THE GK)OSEBERRY. 

Published in Part XL. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OF THE ARAUCARIA. 

Published in Part XXXVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1 s, 

CULTURE OF THE ADENOCARPUS. 

Published in Part XVI. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OF THE ASH TREE. 

Published in Part XVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price If. 

CULTURE OF PLANTS FOR FENCES. 

Published in Part XLVIII. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is, 

CULTURE OF THE VACCINIUM. 

Published in Part XLV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price It, 

THE ZAUSCHNERU CALIFORNICA. 

Published in Part XLV. of the Horticultural Magazine. Price Is. 

CULTURE OP THE AMARYLLIS. 

Published in Part XL VI, of the Horticultural Magazine. Price 1$. 



GEORGE GLENNY, 

iortitttltursl ^gent an)) ^snlistaje iarkiur, 



Having, upwards of Fifty Year?, been more or less engaged 
in Practical Gardening, and during the greater portion of that 
period published the result of his experience, respectfully 
suggests to the nobility, gentry, and wealthy classes generally, 
that hi& opinion and advice may be serviceable in all works 
connected with the Improvement of Estates, the Laying-out of 
OroundSf and the Erection of HorticuUv/rcd Buildings, and 
Garden Ornament; and he begs to announce that, without a 
desire to be engaged in the execution of works, he may be con- 
sulted in any part of the kingdom, upon such subjects, either 
by the owner or by the parties engaged to carry out works. 

Being also in communication with the principal Nursery and 
Seedsmen who can be depended on, he procures for tprivate 
growers and for the trade, whatever is wanted (and can be had) 
in every department of large establishments, or in the limited 
gardens of Amateurs. 

His services are also available for Valuations, negotiSttions for 
the Purchase and Sale, the Letting and Taking, of Gardens and 
Stock ; and in Sales by Auction, &c 

Mr. Glenkt, knowing the difficulty experienced by Amateurs 
in procuring good seeds of particular subjects, has saved each 
year, fine samples of Balsam, Hollyhock, Dahlia, Geranium, 
Pansy, and several others, which cannot be matched in the 
trade. 

Dahlias, Hollyhocks, PinlLS, Pansies, Carnations, and 
other Florists' Flowers, from the best showers. 



* * 



^* Letters on all subjects connected with Gardening answered, 
when a directed envelope is enclosed to him at Dunqannon 
House, Fulham. 

Glbnnt's Companion, with Portrait, 13 Stamps ; Glenny's List 
of the best Sixty Flower-seeds, on receipt of a directed 
enrelope. 



THE HANDY BOOK 



Olf 



GARDENING. 



BY 

GEORGE GLENN Y, F.H.S. 

AUTHOR OF THE GABDEITEB'S EVEBT-DAT BOOK, GLEBlfT'a HAND-BOOK 
OF PBACTICAL GABDENING, GLBBinr*S HAITD-BOOK OP FBUIT8 
AND VEGETABLES, GLSNNT'S PBOPEBTIES OF VXOVEBS^ 
GLENNT'B GABDEB AUCANAC,. DTC. ETC. 



LONDON : 
HOULSTON AND WRIGHT, 

65, PATERNOSTER ROW. 
1858. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Preface y 

First Operations in a Garden . . 7 

Draining 8 

Digging 8 

Trenching 8 

Hoeing 9 

Raking 9 

Mowing 9 

Rolling 10 

Pruning 10 

Grafting . 10 

Budding 11 

Planting Trees and Bushes . .^11 

Espalier Fruit-Trees . . . . 11- 

Flower Borders 12 

Proper Tools 12 

Sowing 12 

Seed 12 

Quantities for given Space . . 13 

Planting out IS 

Rotation of Crops 13 

Dbtance at which Vegetables 

should be planted .... 14 
Number of Plants for a Rod of 

Ground 14 

Sowing and Planting Season for 

Vegetables 14 

Fruit-Trees 15 

Staking newly-planted Tree» . . 15 
Sorts of Fruits best for limited 

Gardens 15 

The bebt Vegetable* .".... 16 



I 



P^AOE 

Culture of Vegetables .... 18 

Potatoes 18 

Brocoli 18 

Brussels Sprouts 19 

Beetroot 19 

Cauliflower 19 

Cabbage 20 

/parrot 20 

CeleTjr 20 

^"^ VJubtunbers 21 

) Cucuidbers from Seed .... 22 

^Melons ' 22 

Lettttee 4 22 

Odion " 23 

^ S^alotts 23 

Scotch Kale» or Broroli ... 23 

Vegetable Marrow 23 

Gourds of all kinds .... 24 

Parsley 24 

Corn Salad 24 

Radishes 24 

Spinach 24 

Turnips 25 

Peas 25 

Beans, Broad 25 

Beans, Kidney 25 

Beans, Scarlet 25 

Parsnips 2G 

Leeks 26 

Mushroom Beds 26 

Twelve old favourite show Gera- 
niums «»Sikv 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



PAOK 

A few Fachsias 27 

TwelTe good Chrysanthemums . 27 

Twelve Pompon Chrysanthemum s 27 

Twelve Carnations 27 

Twelve Picotees 27 

Eighteen Pinks 27 

Eighteea Hollyhocks 27 

Twenty-four Pansies 28 

Twelve Early Tulips 28 

BestSeillae 28 

Best Hyacinths 28 

Eiglriieen Cinerarias 28 

Twelve Verbenas ...... 28 

Best Auriculas t 29 

Eighteen Good Roses 29 

Best Hardy Deciduous Sbruhs . 29 

Best Evergreen Shrubs .... SO 

A feir Deciduous Flolrering Trees SO 

Climbing Plants ...... 80 

Creeping Plants SO 

Hardy Annu^ 31 

Tender and other Annuals ... 81 

BienntAlu and Perennial! ... SI 

Favourite Bulbous-robted Plants. 81 

Edging Plants ....... 81 

Best' Plants to grow under Trees . 82 

Aquatid Plants S2 

A few Plaats for Swampy Places . 82 

A fe^ Alpines and Rock Plants . 82 

Bedding-out Plants 82 

Flower^ good for PerfUme , , » 93 

Favdnrlte Greenhouse Plants . . 88 

Favdurite Stove Plants .... 38 
A few Hardy Annuals, perh^s 

thebfest. ........ SS 

Annuals that are better for raising 

in Heat 36 

Biennials and Perennials ... 41 



PAOE 

A few Words on Soils 47 

Liquid Manures 49 

Destruction of Vermin .... 49 
The Temperature at which Plant 
Houses should be kept during 

each Month in the Year ... 51 

Golden Rules for Gardening . . 55 

Culture of the Auricula .... 62 

Culture of the Tulip 63 

Culture of the Pansy 64 

Culture of the Pink 66 

Culture of the Rose 67 

Culture of Carnation and Picotee . 69 

Culture of the Anemone .... 70 

Culture of the Calceolaria ... 71 

Culture of the Ranunculus ... 72 

Culture of the Polyanthus ... 74 

Culture of the Cineraria . ... 75 

Culture of the Camellia Japonica . 76 

Culture of the Dahlia 77 

Culture of the Chrysanthemum . 79 

Growing Specimen Plants ... 80 

Culture of the Hyacinth .... 81 

Culture of the Balsam .... 82 

Culture of the Geranium ... 83 

Culture of the Fuchsia .... 84 

Cultureof the TropsOlum . . . 85 

Culture of the Stock 86 

Culture of the Azalea Indica . . 87 

Culture of the Iris 88 

Culture of the Amaryllis ... 89 

Perennials and Biennials ... 89 

Hardy Flowering Bulbs .... 90 

Trees and Shrubs 91 

The Kitchen Garden 92 

Stove Plants 93 

The Greenhouse and Conservatory 93 

Golden Rules for Gardeners . . 94 



PREFACE. 



The publication of the Golden Rules was hailed by a 
large portion of the gardening world as a successful 
attempt to get a great quantity of information into a 
very small space ; and the only regret that was felt or 
expressed was, that I had not extended my rules to 
every department of gardening. The necessity for a 
reprint has tempted pie to enlarge upon the plan, by 
compressing the very spirit of more costly works into 
as little room as possible, and to make a pocket volume 
that contains a library of useful knowledge ; which, 
without any great stretch of vanity, I may fairly call 
" The Handy Book on Gardening." 

My plan has been to fancy a man who knows little 
or nothing of cultivation, but desirous of learning, just 
turned loose upon a bit of ground, without an idea as 
to how he should begin ; and, moreover, with little 
time for reading, and without the money to buy any 
expensive work to learn from, even if he had leisure. 
The task I set myself was to supply biTn with a cheap 
book that he could always have about with him, and 
find, in a few words, the lessons he required. How I 
have succeeded, or whether I have succeeded at all, 
must be decided by the result. 



Yl PREFACE. 

It has been my aim to make tlie work a kind of 
remembrancer to all who have a garden ; and to render 
it, in some degree, useful to those who know their busi- 
ness. I am confident, that many, who think they do, 
will find information which they cannot meet with so 
cheaply in any work extant. 

Gk)lden Eules have been widely circulated among 
allotment-holders, and cottagers, and even in schools, 
although they were never intended to convey a system 
of general management. I have retained all that were 
valuable in this little work ; but the reader will find 
they play a very subordinate part. Much of the present 
work is new, and even old lessons are in new clothes. 
I trust they will, by their brevity, command attention, 
especially among those who have little time to spare, 
and desire to spend that in their garden ; little money 
to spend, and would rather lay it out on plants and 
seeds than on expensive books. 

Such as it is it must take its chance. I will, how- 
ever, say one word on its behalf^ for perhaps nobody elsQ 
wilL I have not recommended a single operation that 
I have not practised myself with success ; nor is there 
a paragraph which is not founded on experience, during 
fifty years of active gardening life. 

George Glenny. 



THE 

HANDY BOOK ON GARDENING. 



People commence gardening under so many diffe- 
rent circumstances, that it is very difficult to give in- 
structions that will apply to all ; but we may at least 
anticipate the wants of a large number; and there are 
many operations that must be performed in tlie same 
manner in all gardens ; for instance, draining, digging, 
trenching, hoeing, raking, mowing,- rolling, pruning, 
grafting, budding, sowing, planting, and so forth ; and 
a few hints on the best and most handy way of doing 
these things will be all we shall attempt to offer. 

In going into a garden, the first thing to do is to 
ascertain what your soil is ; trench it all over if there 
iwe two spits of good stuff ; if not, only dig, and turn 
over the bottom spit ; but it is very seldom we meet 
with things so bad as all this. Leai*n also if the land 
has been drained, or if there be a natural drainage, as 
there is sometimes. If you are going, to make a path, 
dig it out the first thing six or eight inches deep, and 
then you can throw in all the stones and rubbish that 
you find in digging or trenching ; for the path will be 
good for nothing unless you make it with stones or 
brick rubbish at bottom. 

If your garden is to be miscellaneous — ^vegetable, 
fruit, and flowers — your edging may be D^\9^ft^^'X^sxs>&L» 



8 • THE HANDY BOOK 

Aiobiis, Box, Parsley, or Strawberries ; bnt edging of 
some sort there should be. Generally, in a kitchen 
garden the sunny borders are edged with Strawberries^ 
and the others with Parsley. 

Draining. — ^The most importuit of all is not only 
good for all crops, but it is the foundation of all good 
gardening. Drains should be dug three feet six inches 
deep, — the form of V down to a point, as it were, — ^&om 
the highest part of the ground to the lowest. If pipes 
are used, they must be laid end to end along the bottom; 
a foot may be filled in with bushes or large stones. If 
the ground is level, the drains themselyes must be 
deeper at one end than the other ; say three feet at one 
end, and three feet six, or even four feet, at the otheiu 
If there be a good outlet, so much the better; but if not, 
you must dig a pond to drain into. It may be that this 
pond will be too full of water to let the drains empty 
themselves; no matter, — every pail of water that is 
drawn out of the pond moves the water in every drain, 
so that it will not be stagnant These drains should be 
about fifteen feet, apart; they may all communicate with 
one across the end, and this to go into the pond. When 
they are aU done, fill in the soil, and leave the extra 
earth in a ridge along the top, for a good deal of it will 
settle down. When you cannot get pipes, use the 
bushes and large stones without them. 

DiGOiNQ. — K you are going to dig a piece of ground, 
make a trench or gutter across one end, and wheel the 
stuff you take out to the other end ; this enables you 
to fill up the trench by digging the next spit, and so 
throughout the piece ; when you dig the last you fill it 
up with the stuff that you wheeled away fix)m the first 
iouateurs should not get too heavy a spade ; indeed. 
Dray's bteel dioging forks are far better than a 
spade, for they tear the ground to pieces more than a 
spade does. 

Trenching. — ^This is a sort of double digging. Mark 
out two feet all across one end of the piece to be 



ON GARDENING. ' 9 

trenched ; dig it out one spade deep all over, and wheel 
the stuff to a heap at the other end ; then dig it anothet 
spit deep, and wheel away the stuff to another heap at 
the other end. When this trench is made two spits 
deep, mark another two-foot width ; dig the first spit 
all over it, and throw it into the hottom of the trench ; 
and when you dig the second spit, put it on the top. 
Then you will have filled up the first trench with the 
soil out of the second ; continue this the whole length 
of the piece ; and when you have made the last trench, 
fill in the bottom with the stuff that came off the first 
spit ; and complete it by using that which came fi*om 
the second spit. The whole piece is then trenched, 
and the bottom spit is put on the top. 

Hoeing. — ^This is done for various purposes. Crops 
that are sowed broadcast, that is, sprinkled all over a 
space, always come up too thickly in some parts to 
stand. The hoe is used to thin them out, by chopping 
all the superfluous plants up, and leaving the others at 
proper distances apart. - Hoeing is also necessary to get 
md of weeds, to earth up crops, and to make drills to 
sow seed in. 

Baking generally follows the hoe after it is used to 
cut up weeds ; for, although we may in hot weather 
leave the weeds to be dried up by the sun, they should 
be raked off clean wherever the soil is damp, or there 
is any danger of rain. The r^e is useful to level the 
soil, to take off great stones, and to rake in seed after 
it is sown broadcast. 

Mowing. — ^Wherever there is grass it must be mowed. 
If this is done with the mowing-machine, it may be 
done in the heat of the day ; but if with the scythe, it 
can only be done when the dew is on the grass, or 
before the sun rises. Nothing is more simple than 
mowing, if the scythe is properly hung or fixed. A 
steady hand, to keep the scythe level, is all that is 
required, except the sharpening of the blade as it gets 
dull ; and this is done with a proper stone oit \»Jc3k«t* 



10 THE HAin)T BOOK 

KoLLTNG is essential to grass and gravel-walks, and to 
be well done it must be well timed. After rains, and 
as soon as it has soaked into the gravel, and the surface 
is dry enough to let the roller go over without sticking 
to it, no time should be lost ; every other job should 
be left, rather than lose the opportunity of rolling the 
graveL As for grass, it should be rolled in the evening, 
when it is to be mowed next morning. 

Pruning. — Gooseberry and Currant-trees may have 
all their lateral or side-shoots cut short ; that is, down 
to half an inch to an inch, leaving the end shoot on ; 
all branches- that grow inward should be cut clean 
away. Black Currants want no other pruning than 
weakly branches removed. Wall-trees must have all 
fore-right shoots cut o% the shoots that grow straight 
out from the wall ; all weakly branches removed, and 
the best laid in and nailed to the walL Orchard-trees 
should have aU the waste wood cut out of the head ; 
branches that cross or grow inwards removed. The 
object of pruning is to take away superfluous wood 
that helps to exhaust the tree, and keeps away light 
and air. Kaspberry-canes only require shortening. 

Grafting consists in joining the wood of one tree to 
that of a growing stock, by which means a worthless 
crab is transformed into a golden pippin, or a fruit-tree 
that displeases into one that you require ; we could 
mention twenty ways of grafting, but one would be 
just as good as another. The only conditions necessary 
to successful grafting are, — -Jlrst, the stock must be 
proper, that is to say, one of a similar family ; second, 
the portion of wood to be grafted, and the stock it is 
to be grafted on, must be cut so as to fit very neatly ; 
third, the barks of the stock and the graft must meet 
on one side at least, without which no union can take 
place ; but two parts must be cut smooth, so that they 
set close, and the barks actually touch on one side, 
and the graft will be safe ; fouHh, they must be tied 
finnly, and the external air be excluded by clay, or 



\ 



ON GARDENING. 11 

composition, or grafting wax ; fifth^t the operation must 
be performed at the right season, namely, before the 
stock starts into growth, and when the graft is dor- 
mant 

Budding. — This is a veiy simple operation ; the bud, 
with a portion of bark, is taken from one tree, and, by 
means of a slit, the bark of another is lifted, and the 
bud tucked in. Here it will grow as it would have 
grown on its own tree. This is done, to a great extent, 
with Eoses, Plums, Peaches, Nectarines, and other sub- 
jects. Ladies amuse themselves by inserting buds of 
diiferent Roses on the same tree. The process of bud- 
ding is simple. There is a bud at the base of every 
leaf. Shave out a bud with its leaf on a portion i& 
bark, say haK or three quarters of an inch long, half 
below and haK above the lea^ cut a slit an inch long 
down the portion of stock that is to receive it, and half 
way down make a cross slit ; by tucking in the thin 
handle of a budding-knife, you can raise the bark from 
the wood on both sides, and sUde the bud in under the 
bark, which must be tied down upon it. A bunch of 
damp moss tied over loosely to keep off wind and sun 
is not lost time. 

Planting Trees and Bushes. — If the soil is loose 
about the roots, the plant cannot thrive. In planting 
trees, bushes, and so forth, the collar of the plant must 
be even with the surface. It is ruin to a tree to put 
any of the stem below the surface ; and when planted 
properly, a tree must be fixed in its place somehow by 
stakes or ties ; for if the wind disturb a tree after the 
roots are firmly trodden in, the fibres must be broken 
or torn. 

Espalier Fruit-trees are better adapted to small 
gardens than standards would be, because, being trained 
out like a fan, they may form a back to all the principal 
borders, or there may be a row here and there across 
the ground ; they are trained the same as they would 
be on a walL One advantage is, that they are alwa^ja 



IS THE HASDT BOOK 

wiUim leich for fliimrmg the crops and Tegetatiiig tiis 
number. 

Flowee Bobdkbb. — ^There are certain litde natters 
to be borne in mind bere. In sowing annnah, nearfy mil 
will bear planting out; TeiTfewoa^ttobesownwliere 
they are to blow ; the exo^itions are Lariupurfl^ £iysi- 
mnm, Coreopaifly Candytofl^ of which, howeyer often 
thinned oat, there oo^^ not to be more than half-*- 
dozen left. XApim^ ConYcdYohiay J^ilox Drommandii, 
India 'Pink, 8tock Aater, Thonbeigia, Ac may all be 
aown with or withoat heed, bat shoald be planted oat, 
and not one of them shoald be j^anted nearer than 
six inches apart : three in the shape of a tnangle look 
the best 

All we need add here is a bit of adrice aboat tools 
and implements yoa want to start with : a spade, a 
digging-fork, large and small hoe, a large and small 
rake, trowel, praning and badding-knife, an iron-shoed 
dibble (mark feet and three-inch notches on all the 
handles of yoar rakes and hoes) ; three watering-pots, 
large, middling, and small for watering seeds and seed- 
lings ; hammer, nails, and shreds, if yoa haTe any 
wall or house to grow against : and, thus equipped, we 
think yoa may commence gardening with the few rales 
that yoa will find in this book. 

Sowivo. — Seeds require to be covered, that they may 
not be blown away with the wind, nor be exposed to 
the depredation of birds ; a covering also, however slight, 
keeps the moisture in. Seeds are sown in drills, in 
broad-cast, or by dibbling. Peas, beans, and indeed 
seeds in general, do not all vegetate. Some samples 
are half dead seeds ; others, about one-fourth dead ; and 
on that account we have to sow thicker. 

Seed should be sown when the ground is in good 
order, and be veiy carefully covered ; a single pea ex- 
posed mighi; attract an enemy that would rout every 
one out ; when, if well covered, a thousand might fly 
orar without being attracted The principal thing to 



ON GARDENING. 13 

attend to in sowing seeds is to sow them evenly and 
thinly over the space allotted to them. 

Quantities. — ^A pint ought to sow 60 feet of Peas ; 
80 feet of Beans ; 160 feet of Kidney Beans ; an ounce 
of any of the Cabbage tribe would sow a se^ bed of 8 
nquare yards ; an ounce will do 150 feet of Carrots in 
drills ; an ounce of Onion will cover 9 square yards ; 
an ounce of Parsley will sow 50 feet of drill or of 
edging; an ounce will do 150 feet of drill of Beet or 
Wurzel ; half an ounce would do 10 square yards of 
Turnips. 

Planting out. — ^When the seeds are up in seed-beds, 
from which they are to be transplanted, they will bo 
found too thick in some places ; they should be thinned 
soon after they are up, or they would draw up weakly ; 
but in small gardens, and among amateur gardeners, 
it is common to prick them out very small, instead of 
hoeing them out and wasting them ; which pricking 
out is, after all, only planting. Our rule then in plant- 
ing out small things is, always to tread the ground hard, 
and rake it even ; you can then plant out the smallest 
thing, firm and solid : whether you are pricking out 
Cabbage, Cauliflowers, Brocoli, Lettuce, or any other 
small seedlings, the advantage of firm ground cannot 
be over-rated.. To go from small planting to larger, 
you must contrive to force or press the ground to the 
roots firmly. 

KoTATioN OF Crops. — None of the same family of 
plants should be grown on the same spot without an 
intervening crop. The following is a good rotation : — 
Onions, Lettuce, one of the Cabbage tribe. Carrots, 
manure. Turnips, or the Cabbage tribe of some sort, 
Celery, Peas, Potatoes, manure ; but recollect that the 
Cabbage tribe comprises Cabbage, Brocoli, Cauliflower, 
Brussels Sprouts, Borecole, &c. These never do well after 
each other generally, if this rotation be not adhered ta 
Take care that fibrous-rooted subjects should be fol- 
lowed by tap or bulbous-rooted. 



14 THE HANDY BOOK 

DiHTANOE AT WHICH VEGETABLES SHOULD BE PLANTED. 

— ^Whether seedlings are hoed out to thin them, .or 
planted out to grow, the distances should be attended 
ta For instance, Onions should be four to six inches 
apart; Turnips, Carrots, and Winter Spinach, six to 
eight inches ; Parsnips and Beetroot, nine inches. In 
planting out, Lettuce should be a foot apart. Cabbage 
eighteen inches ; Cauliflower and Large Brocoli, twenty- 
four inches ; Dwarf Potatoes, nine inches in the row, 
and eighteen from row to row ; Tall Potatoes, twelve 
inches in the row, and twenty-four inches from row to 
row; Dwarf Peas — ^rows two to three feet' apart; Tall 
Peas, five to six feet ; Broad Beans, two feet ; French 
Beans, two feet ; Scarlet Kunners, six feet ; Summer 
Spinach, four inches in the row, a foot from row to row, 
if 'broad cast, six inches ; Asparagus, twelve inches. 

!N'uMBER OP Plants for a Eod op Ground (viz. 
sixteen feet and a-haK square). — 6 inches apart, 1069 
Plants ; 8 inches, 612 Plants ; 10 inches, 392 Plants ; 
12 inches, 272 Plants ; 15 inches by 10, 261 Plants ; 
30 by 12, 108 Plants; 30 by 18, 72 Plants; 30 by 
24, 55 Plants; 30 by 30, 43 Plants; 36 by 30, 38 
Plants. 



SOWING AND PLANTING SEASON FOR VEGETABLES. 

Main Crops. — Jerusalem Artichoke^ April; Aspa- 
ragv^f December, January; Beans (Broad), March-; 
Beetroot^ March ; Cabbage, August (middle), to go over 
winter — March, for summer. These two sowings sup- 
ply for planting, as room offers. Brocoli of all sorts, 
April and June; CatUiflower, August, to keep over 
winter for spring planting or hand-glass culture — ^April, 
for summer ; Celery, March and April, plant out as soon 
as ready ; Com /S'o/o^i, August, to stand the winter where 
^^^Herbs of all sorts, April ; Horseradishy plant in 
^kr ; French Beans, April ; Scarkt Beans, May ; 



ON GARDENING. 15 

LeehSy March ; Lettuce, February to June ; Nasturtiums, 
Ajjril ; Onion, February and March ; Farsnvp, Febru- 
ary and March ; Peas, February, but they may be sown 
every month from November to July; Potato, Feb- 
ruary, March, and April ; Poole's double<ropping Sid- 
ney also in July ; Radish, February, March, and April ; 
Turnip Radish, in April and May ; Chalet or Eschalot, 
November and February; Spinach, February, March, 
April, and May, for summer — ^August, for winter; 
Turnip, April to August. 

Fruit-Trees. — Plant as soon as possible after the 
fall of the leaf ; but they may be planted safely till the 
buds begin to swell, and never plant them deeper than 
they have been growing. Prune as soon as you please 
after October. 

Staking newly-planted Trees. — Drive three stakes 
into the ground firmly, about a foot from the tree at 
equal angles ; put a handful of straw round the tree to 
prevent a tie from injuring the bark, and make a cord 
fast to a stake ; put it once roui^d the tree, and then 
round another stake ; bring it back round the tree, and 
then round the third stake ; pass it once more round 
the tree, and fasten off at the first stake. 

Another mode of staking is to drive the stakes slo- 
ping towards the tree, and let the ends cross. The 
straw must then be put round the bark to protect it, 
and the whole tied firmly. 



SORTS OP PRUITS BEST POR LIMITED GARDENS. 

Pears.— -William's Bon-cretien, Bergamot, Winter 
neUs, Maria Louisa, Glout Morseau, Jargonelle, Van 
Mons Leon le clerc. 

Apples. — Blenheim Orange, Eibston Pippin, King 
of Pippins, Golden Pippin, Nonpareil, Kerry Pippin, 
Femes Pippin ; and for kitchen, Norfolk Beaufin, Russet, 
and French Crab. 



i 



16 JSE HAKBT BOOK 

Plumbl — Green Gage, Coe's Golden Diop^ QDeea 
Tictoiiay Chapman's Pnnee of Waks^Bojal Hj^ire; and 
for preserves^ &c. TVmesoor. 

CHKRMBa— Biggareao, Kack Tartaiian, Maydnk^ 
Elton, Late Duke ; and f<v taitB, &c. MoieDa 

Afriootsl — ^Laige Eailj, Moor Park, Boyal Orangey 
and Breda. 

PbacheBw — GrosBe Mignony Noblesse, Boyal George 
Barrington, Late AdmiraUa 

NEGTABiNEa. — Ehuge, Violet Hativey Pitmaston 
Orange, New White. 

Gbapbb for OFrar aib. — Black Frontignan, Boyal 
Muscadine, and Sweetwater. 

For Greenhouse. — Biaek. Hamboro', Golden Ham- 
burgh, and Muscat Hamboro'. 

For Stova — ^Bowood Muscat^ Chisley Frontignan, 
Cannon Hall Muscat 

Barberrib& — Stoneless. Cranbkrbibb — large-fruited. 

CuRRAins. — ^Bed Grape, White Grape, Monstreuse 
de berry. Black Grape, and Hogden's Black. 

Raspbbbrie& — Carter's Prolific, Bed and White 
Double-bearing, Bed and White Antwerp. 

Strawberribsl — Kean's Seedling, British Queen, 
Black Prince, Myatt's Seedling alias Filbert, Elton, 
Eleanor, Carolina Superba, and Sir Harry. 

G00SEBERRIB& — Warrington, Champagne, forflayour, 
London, Leader, Thumper, and Freedom, for size and 
the different colours. 

Melok& — Beechwood, Lord Baglan's Fayourite, 
Bromham Hall, Trentham. ^ 

Cucu]iBEB& — ^Ebscx Biyal, Symmetry, Ipswich Stan- 
dmd, Cuthill's Black Spine, Kenyon's £Eiyourite, Dancer's 
Long Green. 

THE BEST yEOETABLE& 

Potatoes, — ^Poole's early double-cropping Kidney, 
B^ent^ Forty-fold, Bilotf s Flower Ball, Lapstone Kid- 
ney, Early Fulham Bound 



ON GABDENING. 17 

Brocoli. — Snow's Superb, Grange's Early White, 
Walcheren, Early-Sprouting, Purple and White Cape. 

Brussels Sprouts. — Buy imported seed. None 
other can be depended on. 

Beetroot. — Dancer's Ked, Whyte's Isle worth, and 
New Black 

Cauliflower. — Walcheren, Haage's Erfurt early 
fqrcing, Asiatic late. 

Cabbage. — ^Early Fulham, Imperial, East Neuk of 
Fife, Battersea. 

CoLEWORT. — Fulham Eosette, and the Old Hardy 
Green. 

Carrot. — ^Early Horn, Altringham, and Long Orange. 

Celery. — Cole's Ked, Cole's White, Silesian, and 
Lion's Paw. 

Lettuce. — Fulham Cos, Brown Dutch, and Silesian 
Cabbage. 

Onion. — ^White Spanish, James's Long-keeping, Tri- 
poli, and Silver Skin for pickling. 

Kail. — Hardy Green, Dwarf Curled, and New 
Variegated. 

Savoy. — Netted Green, Hardy Winter, and Drumhead. 

Vegetable Marrow. — Boston, Dancer's Kibbed, and 
Long Green. 

Radish. — Wood's Early Frame, Red and White 
Turnip. 

Spinach. — Round leaf for Summer, and Prickly for 
Winter. 

Turnip. — ^Nonsuch, White Dutch, Stone, andRendle's. 

Peas. — Groom's Dwarf, Berbidge's Eclipse, Milford 
Marrow, British Queen. 

French Beans. — ^Newington Wonder, Dwarf Dun, 
and Negro. 

Broad Beans. — Wonderftd Long Pod, and Marshall's 
Prolific. 

Parsnip. — Hollow Crown. Leek. — London Flag. 

Rhubarb. — Myatt's Victoria, Linnaeus, and Prince 
Albert. 

B 



18 THE HAKDY BOOK 

Herbs. — Parsley, Thyme, Sage, Winter Savory, 
Marjorum, EazU, Fennel, Tarrogan, Chives, Borage, 
Com Salad. These are all useful ; many otiiers may 
be grown for their medicinal qualities. 



CULTURE OP VEOETABLBS. 

P0TAT0E& — ^This useful vegetable is grown upon a 
large scale on f£irms, and the time of planting depends 
a little upon the clearing of the preceding crop ; but in 
gardens ihej may be planted in autumn, and &om that 
time until the end of spring, so that the weather be fine, 
and the ground in good working order. They are 
commonly dibbled in, that is, holes are made with a 
blunt dibble six inches deep, and the sets dropped in ; 
but it is far better to draw deep drills, and lay them in 
the bottom, and the earth drawn in upon them. One 
condition must be attended to : the sets must be planted 
before they have begun to shoot : for autumn planting 
use whole sets. Where potatoes are large, and require 
to be cut, let there be one strong eye to each set, dry them 
before planting, and never plant till March. Dwacf sorts 
should be nine inches apart in the row, and eighteeoi to 
twenty-four inches &om row to row. Chapman's Kidney, 
which used to be planted in July, and taken up in No- 
vember, has been superseded by Poole's Kino op thb 
KiDNiES, which is one of the earliest, and whieh has 
been proved one of the best for early forcing and the 
first crop planted again in the open ground in July, 
taken up in November, stored solid in sand or earthy 
and used like new Potatoes till May. All sorts of 
Potatoes, when three or four inches out of the ground^ 
should have the earth drawn to their stems on a dry 
day. Large late sorts should be planted a foot apart in 
the rows, and two to three feet firom row to row. 

Bbocoll — ^For a private garden, the best way to 
keep up a succession is to sow in the middle of Apnk 



Olf GARDENING. 19 

very thinly and evenly on beds four feet wide, that the 
middle may be reached for weeding or drawing 'thenL 
If they happen to be too crowded in any part, thin 
them ; as soon as any are large enough, prick them out 
six inches apart in other four feet beds, and leave the rest 
to grow. You will find that you may draw every week, 
for they will, whilst undisturbed in their seed beds, be 
very unequal in their growth, and you wiU get half a 
dozen seasons of plants from the same bed. Whatever 
number of sorts you grow, treat them a31 alike. As 
those which are pricked out grow large enough, plant 
them out, not all at once, but only those which are suffi- 
ciently strong, and thus your brocoli will come in at 
different times, convenient for families, but not so for 
market gardeners. This one sowing will answer well 
for the whole year ; for the first planted out will be 
large, well grown, and established^ while there are yet 
very small ones in the seed bed. This applies to all 
the sorts, but there may be a sowing of the sprouting 
Brocoli a month earlier. Many have a second sowing 
of all the sorts in May, but one is enough for us. 

Brussels Sprouts. — Sow in April, and treat as -you 
would BrocoH 

Beetroot. — ^Trench and crumble the ground well, 
and sow very thinly in drills nine inches apart ; or you 
may, if you please, drop two or three seeds every nine 
inches in the drills. When these come up and begin 
to grow, draw out all but the strongest plant in each 
place. Your piece will be thus well regulated nine 
inches apart all over ; you have nothing more to do but 
hoe out weeds and keep them clean, they will soon 
cover the ground, and kill all the weeds that come up. 
April is the best month for sowing. 

Cauliflower. — ^The spring sowing in April must be 
treated very much like Brocoli ; but a sowing in the 
middle of August will be necessary to prick out in a 
garden frame, or be otherwise protected over the winter. 
The 8t2X>ngest of these may be put out in patchea <!kl 

B 2 



20 THE HANBT BOOK 

fire, to be oorered with hand glasses ; the bulk may he 
ke^ in the frame carefdlly weeded, not watered until 
thej abeolatelj want it, picked oyer now and then to 
lemoTe any that aie nnhealthy, and there kept until 
the weather breaks in the spring to plant them oat 

Cabbage. — One of the most nsefid of all yegetables. 
A pinch of seed may be sown eveiy month from March 
till Angnst, and planted ont as fast as it gets large 
enoogh ; bat the principal sowings most be April and 
Aogost. The latter sowing may be planted oat as 
yacant spaces occar, and we especially recommend 
planting these ont^ when large enoagh, six inches apart 
in rows a foot from each other. The intention, how- 
ever, is to remove every other row as we reqnire them 
for winter greens, and then take oat two of every three 
from the rows left, which will ultimately leave the crop 
lor cabbageing eighteen inches by two feet. The advan- 
tage of this Aagast sowing is, that when pat oat in 
store beds foar inches apart^ they stand over winter, 
get stocky, and may be planted as vacancies occur ; and 
the spring sowing in April will do the same for all 
summer. 

Carrot. — ^The ground must be well pulverised fifteen 
inches deep, and the seed may be sown broadcast or in 
drills eight inches apart ; whichever way it is done, 
the plants must be thinned out to six or eight inch 
distance to make them grow a good size. They must 
be kept free from weeds. For small families, when the 
horn Carrot is used, they may be sown broadcast in a 
warm border, and be only moderately thinned, because 
you draw them as they are wanted, beginning before 
they are half grown, and continuing till tiiey have been 
finished 

Celbrt. — ^We are not to suppose everybody has a 
hot-bed, therefore sow in the open ground in the early 
part of April As soon as the plants are large enough 
prick them out in a bed of good rich soil, four inches 
apart ; see that they are well watered.' When the 



ON GABDENING. Ht 

plants have grown into strength, dig a trench a foot 
wide and spade deep. Put three inches in thickness 
of rotten dtmg on the bottom, and fork it into the 
soiL Plant the Celery nine inches apart all along 
the centre, give it a copious watering to settle the earth 
about the roots, and it wiU soon grow tall enough to 
require earthing, by drawing down a little of the ground 
from both sides. As it grows up, continue drawing 
down the soil on fine days, and take care that the 
mould does not get into the heart of the plant. As it 
advances, you must pile the earth up against it, and 
repeat it as long as the plants continue to grow. If 
you have more than one row, have four feet of room 
between all the rows. When you take up the plants 
for trenching out, as it is called, trim off the side shoots 
if there be any, but do not follow the common practice 
of trimming off the leaves. For soups, plant out on 
the level ground, first forking in dung as you do at the 
bottom of a trench, and earth up as it grows ; you do 
not want it so long, and it is easier taken as you require 
it. If the plants are raised in heat, sow a month earlier. 
Cucumbers. — ^These may be commenced at any period 
of the year, if you have a good supply of hot stable 
dung. The dung should be shook out several times, 
and watered when too dry — ^as often, in fact, as it heats — 
until it is pretty well all alike of a genial warmth ; 
for if used without this, the centre would pretty well 
bum, and the heat be violent, but of no duration. 
Build up your bed a foot wider all round than the 
frame, and five feet high, thrust a stake that will reach 
the centre in at one side of the bed, that by with- 
drawing it you may ascertain the temperature, and if 
you find the heat too violent after two or three days, it 
must be shook out again. In making up the bed, the 
dung must not be trodden nor much pressed, — merely 
pat it down with the fork, put on the frame, and cover 
up with the glass. When the heat is well up, put 
three inches of good loam aU over the surface : thi& ^^icn^iL 



S3 THE HANDT BOOK 

prev^it any noxious vapour from lismg within tii9 
j&ame. Wten the heat comes throngh, put a peek of 
earth, good rich loam and well rotted dung mixed, 
under the centre of each glass, turn out the plant witfa 
its ball of earth whole, and making the earth into a 
sort of basin, place the ball on the three inches of soil, 
and draw enough of the other to it to be even with the 
surface, leaving the remainder like a bank round it; 
water to settle the earth to the ball, and, as the roots 
appear through the side, continue to add soil until tha 
whole is level If any shoot takes the lead, nip off the 
end, and let aU the branches be laid in directions to fill 
the frame ; pick off all the male blooms and buds as 
fast as they come ; shade in the heat of the day, and' 
water freely as the soil dries. 

Cucumbers from Seed. — Make a slight hot-bed a 
month before the main one, sow seeds in a pot, and as 
soon as they have begun to show the rough lead^ pot 
them singly in four-inch pots ; when they have two 
pair of rough leaves, pinch out the heart, and lateral 
shoots will appear ; and when they have grown strong; 
they are in a fit state to transfer to the fruiting bed. 
• Melons. — ^There is very httle difference in the treat* 
ment of these two fruits. Generally the bed should be 
begun in April, for the sake of summer heat in ripening 
the fruit, but in all other respects the same ; except 
that when fruit is ripening you must be sparing of 
water. The great object in both is to cover the surface 
with branches as soon as we can, and shorten any that 
get beyond bounds. 

IfiTTUCE. — ^Mthough this universally favourite salad 
is succulent beyond most others, they grow beet in H^it 
ground, sown in frames in autumn to plant out in the 
spring, and for succession from February through the 
whole summer. They are simply i thinned in the seed- 
bed to give them room to grow into strength, and when 
large enough, planted out in open situations; they want 
imly to be kept clear of weeds. Por open air culture 



ON GABDENING. 28 

without assistance sow from March to August, con- 
stantly sowing and planting out if the supply is wanted. 
When we approach November, some may be planted in 
frames, and kept for use in winter, by merely closing 
the frames in bad weather, and throwing them open 
when it is mild and fine. 

Onion. — It is next to impossible to have the ground 
too rich for Onions. It should be hberally dunged and 
dressed, well forked and pulverised, the top laid level 
and raked. Mark out four-feet beds, with eighteen- 
inch alleys between them. Sow the seed in March and 
April very evenly and thinly all over the surface, then 
xjover slightly with earth taken from the alleys, crum- 
bling it well, and throwing it evenly all over the surface, 
then tread the bed all over, with the footmarks joining 
each other, so that no portion be left untrodden. This 
done, lay it smooth with a rake, without disturbing the 
surface much, and cut the sides square, rake the alleys 
smooth, and wait their coming up. When they have 
come up, and get strength, hoe them out, so that they 
be left from four to six inches apart. When the weeds 
grow again, give them a second hoeing to clean them, 
and remove any that have been left too close. Onionfl 
for pickling should be sown the end of May, and not 
be thinned. 

Shalotts should be planted in November or Feb- 
ruary in drills drawn deep enough to allow of three 
inches of covering, in any common soil where a cabbage 
will grow, and be taken up when the leaves turn yeUow. 

Scotch Kale, or Brocoli. — This may be treated Hke 
Cabbage, except thaf the crop, when finally planted 
out, should be eighteen inches apart in the row, and 
two feet from row to row, and earthed up a little when 
first weeded after planting out. 

Vegetable Marrow. — This has become a general 
favourite, and as two or three plants will give a large 
supply, it is better for a small establishment to get 
plants, as they get fruit earlier than if it be «y'«rsN.xsi.*"^sifc 



24 THE HANDY BOOK 

open ground ; but if a barrow full of hot stable dung 
can be got,. dig a hole eighteen inches across and as 
deep, tread the hot dung into the bottom, and return 
enough earth to fill up a little above the level ; on this 
sow three or four seeds in March, and cover with a 
common hand-glass ; when they come up, the glass 
may be tilted to give air every mild day. As they can 
get no rain, they will require water now and then. 
They will not bear the open air till May, but there will 
be many fine days when the glass may be removed long 
before that. In May, you may remove all the plants 
but two, and plant them elsewhere ; but these two that 
remain will yield more than most families will requira 
When they have four rough leaves, the point may be 
pinched out ; as the lateral branches grow they must be 
laid out regularly out of each other's way, for they will 
cover a great space ; but they may be checked by taking 
off the ends. Those on the dung will grow immensely 
strong. Where there are hot-beds, the seed is sown in 
pots, and bedded out without disturbing the balL 

Gourds of all kinds may be grown in the same 
way. The ground can hardly be too rich for any of 
them. 

Parsley, and all sorts of herbs may be sown in drills^ 
and, when large enough, be planted out. Parsley, how- 
ever, is a favourite edging, and is then sown whero^ it 
is to grow. 

Corn Salad is sown where it is to grow, in any of" 
the spring months, and thinned out to nine inches 
apart. The leaves are picked for salads all the winter 
months. 

Eadishes. — These are sown in autumn, to be covered 
all the winter with straw or litter at night, and during 
frosts ; but for families they are not worth the trouble, 
and therefore are sown in March, April, and May, 
broadcast, and drawn as soon as they are large enough. 

Spinach. — ^The round leaf is sown early in spring, 
generally broadcast, and thinned out to six inches apart ^ 



ON GARDENING. 25 

but for amateurs it is better sown in drills, six inches 
apart, rather thinly, and then it only has to be hoed 
one way, the distance of the drills does for the other. 
At the end of the summer, a crop of winter or prickly 
spinach may be sown in a similar way, and this stands 
all ordinary winters well. 

Turnips. — ^These may be sown like Onions, but do 
not require treading. There is hardly any rule for 
sowing ; advantage is generally taken of the weather, 
for after heavy rains they are almost sure to do well at 
any season. The first sowing may be in April, and the 
last in September. They must be hoed out to six inches 
apart, and kept clear of weeds. 

Peas. — Some people sow every three weeks from 
November to July ; others begin in November, and the 
succeeding crops are put in when the last sown is up • 
until July; however, successive crops must depend 
entirely upon the supply required. Peas like fresh 
ground, and should never be sowed on ground recently 
dunged. The distance depends on the sorts : dwarfs 
may be two to three feet apart, tall ones six* feet ; drills 
should be drawn three inches deep, the peas sown thinly, 
covered up and trodden in, there is the less chance of 
birds, mice, or other marauders disturbing them, and it 
holds the moisture on the ground ; when up, well earth 
them, and put sticks. 

Beans, Broad. — Sow in drills two to three feet apart 
from November to May ; earth them up as soon as they 
are three. inches high ; top them as soon as they begin 
to bloom. 

Beans, Kidney. — Sow in drills eighteen inches to 
two feet apart, and only leave them a foot apart in the 
row, by pulling up any that are closer than this. They 
must not be sown till the end of ApriL 

Beans, Scarlet. — These may be put six inches apart 
in rows six feet apart, and they may be grown with or 
without sticks. They will grow six or eight feet high. 
To grow them without sticks, you must pinch off the 



26 THE HAKDT BOOK 

tops a foot from the ground, and eontinne to top evesij 
side shoot With attention they crop- sooner and as 
welL 

Pabsnipb. — Whether sown in antmnn or springy 
they are best sown in drills nine inches apart, and hoed 
out to the same distances in the row, or if broadcaeft, 
they must be left the same distance. They only reqnire 
to be kept clear of weeds nntil they are large enough to 
store. 

LEEKa — May be sown in a small bed, and, when 
large enough, planted out six by eighteen inches apart^ 
to be earthed up when they have grown into strength,^ 
for the purpose of bleaching them higher up than 
they would bleach naturally. 

Mushroom Beds. — ^These favourite fungi are grown 
• «o many different ways that we need only mention th& 
conditions required to produce them : — a heap of horse 
droppings laid against a wall or piled up in a shed, or 
even laid in a sloping bank on a wide shelf in a djark 
cellar or cupboard, until it heats to the temperature of 
warm milk from the cow, will only require to be 
planted all over with lumps of spawn the size of an 
egg and covered with an inch of loam patted gently 
down, and the produce becomes a certainly ; take care, 
however, that there is no decaying wood, such as old 
sawdust or rotten twigs among the dung or loam used, 
for it destroys the mushroom and engenders a noidous 
fungus. The mushroom spawn is sold by every nursery- 
man, and at all seed shops, and costs but little. 



PAETICULAE FLOWERS. 

Twelve Old Favourite Show Geraniums. — Are- 
thusa (Beckys), salmon ; Carlos (Hoyle's), mottled rose j 
Govemor-Greneral (Hoyle's), bright rose ; Leah (Beck's), 
pinkish salmon; Lucy (Foster's), lilac; Magnet (Hoyle's), 
crimson ; Magnificent (Foquett), crimson scarlet ; Pnr^ 



ON GA1DENII3G. 27 

pnrea (Beck's), purple ; Purple Perfection (Foster's), 
bright purple; Eosamond (Beck's), rosy purpk ; Eowena 
(Turner's), pink ; Eosa (Foster's), Kose. 

A Few Fuchsias. — ^KingOharming; Sedonia; IDucliess 
Lancaster ; England's Glory ; Omega ; Yenus de Me- 
dici ; Napoleon and Princess of Prussia (white corolla). 
. Twelve Gck)d Chrysanthemums. (Large varieties). — 
Dupont de TEure ; Pio Nono ; Queen of England ; 
Two-coloured Licurved ; Plutus ; Phidias ; Madame 
Audry; Eolla; Trilby; Strafford; Anaxo; Gassy; 
Albinn. 

Twelve Pompon Ghrysanthemump. — ^Le Nain bebe ; 
Cedo ^Nulli ; Eequiqui ; Bob ; Brilliant ; Creole ; 
Aurora Borealis ; Compte Achilli Yigier ; Bucking- 
ham ; NemBsis ; Saint Thais ; Argentine ; President 
Decainse. 

Twelve Carnations. Scarlet Bizarres, — Martin's 
Splendid ; Galoot's Brutus ; Omer Pacha. Crimson^ 
Pink, and Purple Bizclrres. — Black Diamond ; Falcon- 
bridge ; Morgan May. Purple fiahes, — Beauty oi 
Woodhouse ; Prince Arthur ; Ulysses. Rosejlakes, — 
Brook's Flora's Garland ; Magnificent ; Lorenzo. Scarlet 
fiakes. — Justice Shallow : Troubadour ; Queen Victoria. 

Twelve Picotebs. — Mrs. Norman; Mrs. Turner; 
Mrs. Drake ; Mrs. Kalke ; Alice Hoyle ; Mary ; Lady 
Macbeth ; Mrs. Barnard ; Duke of Devonshire ; Lavi- 
nia ; Countess of Waldegrave ; Thaliah. 

Eighteen Pinks. — ^Adonis ; Sarah ; Great Criterion; 
Beauty of SalthiU ; James Hogg ; Jupiter ; Fanny ; 
Theresa ; Mrs. Lewis ; Glory ; Mrs. Herbert ; Bead's 
Jenny Lind; Colchester Cardinal; Mrs. Norman; 
Kate ; Koh-i-noor ; John Stev^is. 

Eighteen Hollyhocks. — Pourpre de Tyre ; Comet ; 
Lilac Model ; Souvenir ; Sulphur Queen ; Meteor ; 
Hon. Mrs. Ashley ; Orestes ; Eva ; General Bern ; 
Eoyal White ; Purpura ; Elegans ; Fireball Superb ; 
Mrs. 'Oaks ; Lemonade ; Defiance ; Joseph Clark ; Sir 
D, Wedderboum ; Sir R Peel 



28 THE HAaUT BOOK 

TwTJiN-TY-porR Pan'htpa — IIjs. Hamilton : Loid 
Paimprstr.n : .Sampson : Sir -f. P:ixt«m : Sir R^ Peel : 
Riiyil Aih^r : Firhi^r < nivnzzi : irrpat Western : FatT 
of MaiiHliPijI : ^^i^*^^ Tailiot : Xonapih : Mrs. Beeoher 
Rtowe ; Fearless : Sir Waiter Srott : Flo\rer of the 
Day ; Dufhey^s ..f Rutiami ; yatiryiial : Laiiy Montague : 
i'FAyftOTi ; r;nmson P^vit^'xion : Dnchess ot Sutherlsmii ; 
fJnkft of Xew'iaHtle : Riwal Viriit : Her»> : Aurora; 
iSnpTftTne. 

TwKLVE Early- TrLiPS. — Eelle .Uliance : Bizani Pron- 
kftt ; r>orothea Bianohe ; riemlr:ic^ : Yellow Standard ; 
White Potterhakker : Superintemient : Yermilion 
Brilliant; Parisina : Beine de (^.'erea : Grand faster; 
line d'^lran^. 

Brht HrjrrxAS. — Bifolia, blue ; Bifolia, white ; ^bi- 
rir^; AmfjBTia. 

Bk«t HrAcr.vTHS. DfyuhU Dark Blue. — ^Blocksberg; 
jATirftn« Koater ; JAfjht Blue : (.xamck ; Comte St 
Priest Jjr/u}/le White : Bride of Abydos ; Grandeur 
Rriyale, ; Dovhle Whiter with coloured centres : Anna 
Maria ; Gloriaflorum suprema. Double Yellow, — ^Duc 
de I^jJTJ ; Jjftdy Sale. Double Rose. — Bouquet Koyale ; 
Groot Vorst Df/uttle Crimsf/n. — Cochineal ; Flos San- 
guineus. SinffU Crimson. — ^Amphion ; Satella. Single 
Eosp. — Aj)pelius ; 1j3l JJame du Lac ; Single Blaek-hlue, 
— Baron do Tuyll ; Gladiator. Light Blue. — Grand 
Lilae ; Orrmdates. Single pure White. — Grand Vain- 
qneur; l^ti Grande Vedettci. French White. — Kousseau; 
Voltaire. Yellow. — King of Holland ; Prince d' Orange. 

Eio UTRKN (/INKUA RiAH. — Catherine Seaton; Exquisite ; 
Flora Me Ivor ; Kate Kearney ; Lablache ; Lady Camoys; 
Lady Paxt^)n ; Optima; Picturata; Prince of Blues; 
KoHalind ; (JIueen of l^iauties ; Admiral Lyons ; Attrac- 
tion ; C/ompiMjtum ; Magnum Bonum ; Kose of Eng- 
J//Al Brilliant. 

''^^^'teiVH Vkrhknah. — Brilliant de Yalse ; Defiance ; 
4|; Ix)rd Jljiglan ; Madame Frileuse ; ' Mrs. 
faley ) Mr«. llalford-, "NLib, ^. \fc\^\ '^Jba. 



ON QABDENINQ. 29 

Tysson; Madame Lamorici^re ; Purple King; St. Mar- 
garet ; Wonderful. 

Best Auriculas. — Green-edged : Champion ; Colonel 
Taylor ; Freedom. Grey-edged : Ne Plus Ultra ; Con- 
queror of Europe ; Cheetham's Lancashire Hero. White 
edged ; Taylor's Glory. 

EIGHTEEN GOOD ROSES. 

The following signs will indicate, * constant bloomers, 
t show flowers, as single blooms, J roses of peculiar 
character. When more than one of these marks are 
placed, the variety has the two qualities combined : 
those marked also c are climbers. The whole are very 
distinct. 

*\Bar(mne Prevost — Bright rose colour, large. 
* Cymedor, — Crimson, tinged with purple. 
*\Cele7nene, — Pink rose, fine form. 
*fG^ant des Batailles, — ^Most vivid scarlety crimson, 
cX*Prudence RcBser, — Pink, with fawn centre. 
*Comice de Seine et Mame, — Cherry red, shaded. 
c*Le Grenadier, — ^Vivid scarlety crimson. 
*Leve8on Gower. — Eose colour, large. 
c* Pierre de St Gyr, — Pale, glossy rose colour. 
*Qu€en of Bourbons, — Most beautiful fawn. 
*f Souvenir de Mcdmaison, — Creamy flesh blush. 
*Fellenberg. — Bright crimson, small flower. 
c'l*La Bieche, — ^White, centre flesh. 
*Mis8 Glegg, — Pure white, centre tinged. 
X*Cramoi8ie Supirieure. — Brilliant velvety scarlet 
*fGomte de Paris, — Deep flesh-coloured blush. 
*fDevonien8is. — Creamy white and straw. 
cCloth of Gold, — Splendid yellow. 

BEST HARDY DECIDUOUS SHRUBS. 

American Azalias, Althea^ to.\«5L. 't^orssa^ ^^-ssS^ 
Dntzia acahm Lilacs, Peiaiau, ^^Jocr^ssxs ^^^asss^^^^- 



80 THE HAND! BOC^ 

Almonds, Dwax£ Mazerion, red and -vrbite. Magnolia 
purpurea. Pyrus Japonica, red, white. Eibes san- 
guinea, single and double. Spirea prunefoli% double. 
Wiegelia Eosea. Syringa. 

BEST EVERGREEN SHRUBS. 

Berberis aquifolia. Ebododendrons. Andromeda 
floribunda. Araucaria imbricata. Garraya eliptica. 
Arbutus Andrachne, Procera^ and Unedo. Euonemus, 
gold stripe and silver stripe. Box, green and variegated. 
Aeuba Japonica Yews, green and silver. LaureL 
Portugal LaureL Laurustinus. Hollies, silver-edged, 
gold-edge, and green. Kalmia latifolia. Magnolia 
grandiflora. Heaths. Daphne Cneorum, CoUina, Loa-' 
reola. 

A FEW DECIDUOUS FLOWERING TREES. 

. Laburnum. Acacias. Cherry, double, flowing. Al- 
mond. Peach, double, flowing. Mountain Ash. liorne's 
red, white, single and double. Horse-Chesnut, white, 
scarlet. SaJisburea. 

CLIMBING PLANTS. 

Virginian Creeper. Clematis Sibboldii, Azarea 
grandiflora, and scented. Honeysuckle. Ivy, English, 
Lish, and variegated. Jasmine, white, and nudifiora, 
yellow. Porsythia. Wisteria siuensis, lilac, white. 
Koses. Everlasting Pea. Passion Flower. ANmjAii 
DITTO. — ^Tropeolum Canariensis, Major, Attrosanguinea. 
Convolvolus mcgor. Sweet Pea. Thunbergia. 

CREEPING PLANTS. 

Ivy. St. John's "Wort. Yinca, m^'or and minop. 
gaxifraga. Annual ditto.— Abronia. umbellata. Ko- 
lana prostrata. 



ON OABBENINa 81 

HARDY ANNUALS TO BE SOWN AND THINNED OUT 
WHERE THEY ARE TO BLOOM. 

Convolvolus major, and minor. NemopMIa insignis, 
and macnlata. Larkspur. Coreopsis tinctoria. Sweet 
Pea. Candy Tuft. CoUinsia Bicolor. Mignonette. 
Erysimum Perof&kianum. Lupinus nanus, menzislL 
and hybridus inaignis. Campi LoyriL 

TENDER AND OTHER ANNUALS THAT REQUIRE TO BE 
SOWN AND PLANTED OUT OR POTTED. 

Linum grandiflonna rubnun. Zinnia. Ten-W^k 
Stock. China Aster. New Everlasting Fbwer. Im- 
perial India Pink Clarkia Elegans Marginata. Schy- 
sopetalum WalkeriL AcroGlinium Eoseum. Ehodanthe. 
ManglesiL Phlox BrummondiL Glenny's Improved 
Balsam. Cockscomb. Thunbergia. French Marigold. 
Clintonia pulchella. Salpiglossis. 

biennials and PERENNL^Sy 
TO BE POTTED OR PLANTED OUT. 

Delphinium. Catananche Coerulea. Phlox. Pansy. 
Cineraria. Calceolaria. Verbena. PetunisL Holly- 
hock. Antirrhinum. Polyanthus. Primula sinensis. 
Pink. Auricula. Picotea Digitalis. Columbine. 
Canterbury Bells. Lupinus Polyphyllus. Geranium. 
Fuchsia. Dahlia. Wallflower. Sweet William. Daisy; 
Double Chrysanth,emum. Heliotrope. Mimulus; 
Gloxinea. Veronica. Ageratum Mexicanum. 

FAVOURITE BULBOUS-ROOTED PLANTS. 

' Tulips ; Hyacinths; Scillas ; Crocuses ; Snowdrops ; 
Narcissuses ; Cypripediums ; Irises ; Gladioluses. 
ScALY-ROOTBD PLANTS. — lilicsj Frittelarias, and Crown 
Imperials. 

EDGING PLANTS. 

Box; Thrift; Daisies; Saxifiraga; Gentiana; Alys- 
sum; Arabis. 



S2 l^E HANDY BOOK 

BEST PLANTS TO GROW UNDER TREES. 

Berberis aquifolia ; Ivy trailing ; St. John's Wort ; 
Vinea major and minor ; Acuba Japonica. 

AQUATIC PLANTS. 

Caltha palustris. Cerastium aquaticmn. Iris pseuda- 
corus. Nymphsea alba, odorata. Polygonum amphi- 
bium. Eannnculns aquatilis. Nasturtium aquaticum. 

. A PEW PLANTS FOR SWAMPY PLACES. 

Hypericum, elodes and pulchrum; Aster trifolium; 
Anthericum ossifraga ; Senecio paludosus ; Alnus glu- 
tinosus and pumila ; Betula nana, pumilei, and Sibe* 
rica ; Myrica Grale ; Salix reticulata ; Pinus, palustris ; 
Ledum palustre ; Arbutus Unedo ; Myosotis palustris, 
Aster tnfolium. 

A FEW ALPINES AND ROCK PLANTS. 

Bellis perennis; Lobelia minuta; Saxifraga sarmen- 
tosa and aizoides ; Veronica prostrata ; Violets ; Alys- 
sum calycinum and deltoides ; Campanula per- 
foKata, Cervicaria, thyrsoidea, and pumila; Digitalis 
Anemone alpina and bortensis ; Aquilegia alpinum 
Arabis alpina ; Aster alpinus ; Dianthus colinus 
Erinus alpinus; Gentiana acaulis; Iberis saxatili^ 
Lobelia minutum ; Linum flayum ; Primula viscosa 
and dentifolia ; Polyanthus ; Antirrhinum. 

BBDDING-OUT PLANTS. 

Scarlet. — Geraniums. Tom Thumb; Little David. 
Verbenas, Defiance ; Lord Eaglan. JSweet WiMiam. 
Scarlet Lychnis ; Geum coccineum. 

Yellow. — Calceolarias, Aurea floribunda and rugosa. 
Linum Flavum. Alyssum. Gheiranihus, Marshalii* 
Golden Double WallJUmer, 

Purple. — Verbena, Purple King ; Lobelia ; ramosa ; 
speciosa. Ftfnstemon, Veronica, Anagalis, Delphi^ 
nium Barlowii. 



ON QABDENING.^ 88 

Pink. — Geranium, Tom Thumb's Bride ; Kingsbtuj 
Pet. Verbena. SeveraU Antirrhinum, JBettis Ferennis ; 
Several Daphne Cneorum. 

Light Blue. — Ageratum Mexicanum; Delphimum 
fomosmn. 

White.; — Perennial Candy Tuft. Arabi% Alpina. 
Verbena ; Mrs, Halfoid. White Daisy. Phlox Omne- 
flora Alba. 

Crimson. — Intermediate Stock, Verbena; Crimson 
King. 

FLOWERS GOOD FOR PERFUME. 

Mignonette ; Stock ; Pink j Sweet Pea ; Carnation ; 
Picotee ; Kose ; Wallflower ; Heliotrope ; Lemon- 
scented Verbena. 

favourite greenhouse plants. 

Camellias ; Geraniums j Calceolarias ; Cinerarias ; 
Styphelia tubiflora ; Chorezema varium ; Ereostemon 
buxifolium and cuspidatum ; Boronia serrulata ; Aca- 
cias ; Azalea indica ; Correas ; Cosmelia rubra ; Epa- 
cris ; Erica ; Helichrysum ; Hovea celsii and ilici- 
folia; Leschenaultia formosa andbiloba; PimeliaHen- 
dersonii ; Cestrum amantiacum. . 

FAVOURITE STOVE PLANTS.'* 

Achimenes ; Gloxinas ; G^sneras ; Echites ; Ala- 
manda; Hoya camosa; Passiflora alata and Bona- 
partia; ^Eschynanthus grandifloraj Amaryllis ; Abu- 
tilon venosum and Pictum grandiflorum; Gardenia 
radicans and florida; Eroncisia hopenna and lati- 
folia ; Ixora coccinea ; Euphorbia - splendens and 
Jaquiniflora ; Bondeletk speciosa major. 



A FEW HARDT ANNUALS, PERHAPS THE BEST. 

As Annuals are sown, grown, and perfected in a 
season, the term hardy is applied to all for which our 
'seasons are long enou^ without the assistance of glass. 

CoNVOLVOLUS MAJOR is a climbing plants aiul^ir^ 

c 



84 THE HANDY BOOK 

ran ten or a dozen £aet high upon tall slicks. The 
xolonrs are yarions — red, hlue, white, and striped in 
various ways ; the form, that of a funnel ; sow them 
in April where they are to bloom. 

CoNYOLVGLUS MINOR is a dwarj^ and, if it has room, 
rather a straggling plant ; the prevailing colour intense 
dark, hut striking blue. Not more than three ought to 
be in a patch, in a triangular form, six inches from 
each Other ; there is a white variety comes among them, 
but most growers pull them out, they are not pretty. 
Flowers fomued like C. major, but less. 

Kbmofhila insionis. — ^This is still more dwar^ not 
r<eachiiig more than six inches if it have room, and be 
not drawn up; the flower bright blue, with whit^ 
centre, and about the size of a shilling. This is inclined 
to ramble on the ground if crowded. Three are enough 
' in « patch, and they will bear sowing in a patch and 
planting out ; and if done without disturbing too much, 
the check is good for them. There are several very 
distinct varieties of Nemophila, but the only one wortn 
adding is N, mactUata, which is distinctly blotched. 
N". irmgnis major is said to be larger than the first- 
mentioned ; but as the colour is the same, we cannot 
want both, ^ow in April 

Larkspue. — ^The Dwarf Eocket Larkspur is one of 
the most striking, and is now got up so double, that 
they are only inferior to Hyacinths in their fisunter 
colours, which, however, are numerous. The growers 
send out a dozen distinct varieties ; and although we 
prefer a bed or even patches of mixed colours, we have 
them all saved separately, and mix an equal quantity 
of each colour. Sow them in March or April, where' 
they are to bloom ; they may be left tolerably close, 
say three or four inches apart, in patches on the border, 
or in beds; they are not more than eight or nine 
inches when weU grown. 

Coreopsis tinctoria. — A very gay and elegant 
plant, bearing for a long time flowers of golden y^ow 



ON (UEDBKINO*; j36 

and brown eye, very graceful in its form, and the flowers 
on tall vnxy stems ; one of the very best of annuals. 
This flower has sported a good deal ; some have come 
all brown, and seeds saved from them have, in a great 
measure, been true ; others have come dwarf, and been 
preserved ; but nothing actually beats tinctoria, in a 
batch of which you may have some of all the others. 
Sow in April, where it is to grow, and then thin to the 
proper distances ; six inches is quite near enough, 
whether in a single patch or in masses. The height of 
C. tinctoria is eighteen inches to two feet ; but there is 
a dwarf variety half the height, not so handsome. 

SwEBT Pea. — ^This is a climbing plant, growing on 
good sticks about three feet high, and blooming various 
shades of colour, from light blue and pink to deep 
purple and red, having a very sweet perfume. These 
should always be sown in March or April, where they 
are to bloom, and have light pea-sticks placed to them as 
soon as they are well up j eight or ten may be put to 
each patch, as less will hardly make a show. 

Candytuft. — ^This is a dwarf annual, purple, dingy 
red and white, very hardy, bearing abundance of bloom 
in umbels or flat bunches at the tops of all the shoots, 
which are about eight inches high. It may be sown 
where it is to bloom, and left about three inches apart, 
.by pulling up some where they are closer : the colours 
may be kept distinct ; at all events, the .white is useful 
for effect, for white are scarce^ 

CoLLiNSiA BicoLOR. — This is a plant with spikes of 
flowers something like Larkspurs, but more of the 
Lupin form, about nine inches high ; the prevailing 
colour of the spike is purple. This should be sown in 
April, and left about three inches apart j whether three 
in a patch or thirty in a mass, these distances ought to 
be preserved. Like all other subjects, these are sports 
which are called under different names ; but bi-colour 
is just as good as others. There is, however, a white 
one, which is distinct, and much smaller. 

c 2 



3d THE HINDT BOOK 

Mignonette, grown for its admirable firagranoe, shotild 
be sown in all spare places, without regard to effect^ 
for the flower is so inconspicuous that it cannot be seen 
at any distance ; therefore, every space not necesisary to 
be occupied by gay colours for appearance, may be sown 
with Mignonette. It will transplant like many other 
things, but the seed sown where it is to grow will give 
stronger plants. This is so hardy, that seed dropped 
in the autumn will come up early in the spring, and 
often grow stronger than spring sown. 

Erysimum Peroffskianum grows about nine inchee 
to a foot ; bears a great abundancer of flowers ; coloui^ 
a golden orange. This, while it lasts in bloom, is a very ' 
beautiful ornament to the borders ; it may be sown, in 
March or April, where it is to flower, and be thinned 
out to three inches apart 

Lupins. — Of these, there are several very distinct. 
L. nanus is very dwar^ dark blue, not more than eigjit 
or ten inches at the most ; useM for its dwarfiiesa 
Z. Hartwiegii is tall, blooms blue and whitish yellow ; 
branches a good deid, and if the seed-pods be prevented 
from ripening; will continue growing and blooming till 
eut off with the weather. 'Hiis runs to two feet. L. 
HyMdutinngn is k one of the taller kinds ; a stmgi^ 
in colour between crimson and purple, but very gay ; 
«nd L, Menziesii is a golden yellow, said to be a great 
improvement on the yellow of olden days, which per- 
fected its seeds so fast that it was in bloom and out 
almost within a week. There are many others, but 
these are all that can be courted. 



ANNUALS THAT ABB BETTER FOR RAISING IN HEAT. 

Zinnia. — ^An annual of many colours, everything 

but blue ; a star flower, which, like the Cinneraria^ 

ffVlUlie better when so close as to form a circle. This is 

^better for sowing under glass in March, and plant- 



ON OABDENIKG. 9T 

ing out in May, or early in June ; but it will bear 
sowing in the open air. Height about two feet when 
well grown ; flowers as large as a crown-piece, at the 
ends of all the shoots. 

Ten-Week Stock. — This popular subject has been 
sa improved of late years, that the growers advertise 
fifty or sixty varieties : we have adopted about ten or 
twelve, all large, flowering, and double. Sow this in 
pans as soon after February as you like, and they will 
be large enough to prick out in April, and plant out in 
May. We prefer mixed colours ; but there must be an 
equal number of each of the ten or twelve colours. If 
One predominates, which is always the case if mixtures 
are bought of the raisers, the effect is spoiled. It may 
also be sown in the open air in April, and come in 
bloom later. 

AsTEBa — ^There are many nominal distinctions among 
these. The only ones we value are the quilled, which 
are very beautifiil, and are called by the growers Globe 
Asters ; another sort is called Pyramidal, and they deserve 
the name, for they are tall, narrow, and bloom from top 
to bottom. The third is called TrufBant's Peone Flora 
Aster, which is the true double China Aster, improved, 
or, we might say, perfected, for we hardly know what 
eould make them better. They are large, full, double, 
and symmetrical ; they might come t^rith firmer petals, 
and keep better in their position ; but they are, un- 
questionably, the best : all the others, and there are 
many, may be sent to the winds by people who have 
small gardens. Sown in heat in March, or in the open 
air in April ; they are of all colours but yellow, and 
want a good foot of room for each plant. 

New Everlasting Flower. — Such is the name given 
to a very fine variety of Xeranthemum, large, double, 
and of various colours — ^white, straw, orange, yellow, 
brown, and blush. These flowers, if gathered in their 
prime, will keep perfect all through the winter, and 
indeed for years if kept from the air and from dnak ^csA. 



38 THE HANDY BOOK 

dirt. "We can sea nothing in the plant or flower but 
a very highly improved Xeranthemum. Sow under glass 
in March^ or out of doors in April, because they bloom 
till the frost cuts them off; the earlier they are ia 
flower the better. 

Imperial India Pink. — ^The India Pink was always 
a favourite annual; but it has been so improved that 
we have them double, and in such great variety, that 
there would be no difficulty in selecting a dozen or two 
distinct from a very few. It is an elegant pot plant, 
may be sown in March under glass, and in patches 
when they are to bloom in April ; but when they are 
large enough to remove, it is too late to remove them ; 
raised in heat, and planted in the borders three or four, 
in a patch, they are beautiftd. 

AcROCLiNUM EosEUM. — ^A Very graceful plant, with 
a star-like homy flower of rosy colour sitting hori- 
zontally on the top of every shoot, and the size of a two- 
shilling piece ; on the ground, therefore, it shows to the 
greatest advantage, as we look down on a mass of 
bloom. This pknt requires the same treatment aa 
Eodanthe ManglesiL Sow in heat in March ; prick out 
three in a three-inch pot, close to the edge, as soon as 
they are large enough ; and when the roots have grown. 
well down, shift to four-inch pots ; you may then plant 
them out of doors,- or continue to shift as they fill their 
pots with roots, until you may get them into ten-inch 
pots ; but you may stop at any sized pot you please, 
and start them into bloom ; they run about a foot high. 

Ehodanthe Manglesii is a much smaller and weaker 
plant ; but the flowers are of similar character, and the. 
foot-stalks of the flowers are so weak that the backs 
only are shown, unless they are placed above the eye, 
and these backs are of a silvery grey. They are perfcjctly 
useless as ornaments out of doors. The oidy colour is 
pale rose, and the flower is horny, and about the size of 
a shilling — a trifle larger, perhaps, if well grown ; as a 
pot-plant on a shelf above the eye, it is an elegant subjects 



ON GABDEKINO. 89 

' Phlox Dbuhmondii. — ^This is a favourite subject, and 
from its diyersity of colours, the elegance of its growth, 
and, where pains have been taken in sowing of the 
seed, the form of its flowers, it has become popular 
among the tender annuals. Sow in heat in March, prick 
out in April; pot singly in May; and when intended 
for out-of-doors, turn the balls out whole, without dis- 
turbing the roots. It grows about nine inches high, if 
not drawn up by bad management ; and out-of-doors^ 
continues to bloom till cut off by frost ; all shades of 
red and purple, white, and eveiT scarlet, may be seeir 
sometimJk in^a few s^dlings. ^ 

Cockscombs. — ^This is familiar enough to all classes : 
the flower is of various colours, but the crimson and 
scarlet are the favourites ; and the great merit of grow-r 
ing them is to have them very dw^ and a very large 
flower. We sow in heat in March, prick out four or 
five round the edge of a four-inch 'pot, and let them 
grow with plenty of heat, light, and air, until they 
show their incipient blooms ; select those which promise 
best ; cut off their heads with four pair of leaves ; cut 
up the stem close to the base of the lower pair, which 
must be removed; these will strike readily under a 
bell-glass, when they must be potted singly, kept 
close to the light (in a common hot-bed is best), and 
shift them from one size to another, and give plenty 
of moisture ; the temperature of the bed must be kepi 
up ; the six leaves will get very large, and the flower 
continue to increase as long as you keep up the heat, 
light, air, and sufi&cient water. They will not do out of 
doors. t 

Thunbbrgia. — One of the prettiest of pot climbers, 
and with singular flower — ^white, straw, buf^ yellow, 
and orange, with and without a black centre; l^e flower 
as large as a two-shilling piece. Sow in March, and 
when large enough, pot off singly in a three-inch pot, 
to be shifted and bloomed in a four, or three round the 
edge of a three-inch pot to be shifted and bloomed in ^ 



40 THE HANDT BOOK 

six. They will climb up a trellis or branch of a tree 
two feet, or three feet when they haye plenty of room 
and the first flower buds are picked off ; but if let alone 
in a fo9ir-inch pot will flower before they are eighteen 
inches. They are a beautiful pot plant K those three 
in a pot are turned into the ground in May, they will 
form a pretty object in contrast with Sweet Peas. 

Ebengh MarigoiJ). — ^This^ although anything but 
pleasant to the nose, is a gaudy autumn flower, the yery 
last of the annuald to giye up, and generally coyered 
with bloom when cut oK It is a golden yellow, 
yariously marked with rich brown or red, about eighteen 
inches high if not drawn up. Sow in March under 
glass, and April in the open air — ^the only difference is, 
that the one is in bloom long before the o^her. Plant 
these out three in a patch, six inches apart 

Clarkia Pulchblla. — ^This is no fayourite of ours ; 
there is too little flower for the quantity of plant, and 
it is not striking enough to make up for it ; but Clarkia 
Pulchella Margmata is a sport The tips of the flowers 
are white, and this renders it yery conspicuous. Much 
depends on whether this sport will be constant ; if it 
be, it adds one to our list of fayourites. We strongly 
recommend whoeyer tries this to banish the other 
Clarkias from the garden, and if among the new ones 
any run back to a self colour, root it up iostantly. Sow 
in doors in March, out doors in Apnl, and plant out 
three in a patch when large enough. 

SoHizoPBTALON Walkebii is pure white, with a flower 
like filagree work, yery curious and ' beautiful ; but ijk 
is a subject for a pot, and not the open ground, where 
its extreme beauty is lost Treat it like any tender 
thing, but sowing yery few seeds in pots, and thinmng 
them after they are up is, perhaps, the best mode, so 
that the delicate lit)tle plants are not disturbed. It 
would be difficult to describe the flower. 

These are aU the annuals we care for in the largest 
gardens, unless we could find one as full of flower and as 



ON GABDBKninGk 41 

bright as a scarlet Verbena, for that would be an acqui- 
sition. Scarlets that are good for anything are scarce 
among annuals. Cacalia Coccinea is but middling ; it 
makes no show in a border. The scarlet ten-week 
Stock is the best we can find among the dwarfe. 



BIENNIALS AND PEKENNIALS, 

TO BE POTTED OB PLANTED OUT ACCORDING TO THEIR 

HABIT. 

: Delphinium. — ^This is the perennial Larkspur, of 
which there are now many very beautiful varieties, 
obtained &om a single packet of seed, and when they 
flower, we have nothing to do but reject all that are 
inferior. They should have broad petals to make the 
flower circular, and until we get them so, the broaden 
the petal the better. These are propagated by parting 
the roots in the autumn. The double varieties, such 
as Barlowii, Grandiflora, &c. are much esteemed, but 
the single ones from seed come in such a diversity of 
colours that everybody who likes the flower can raise a 
collection of his own. Choice seed is sown in pans iu 
March or April, pricked out in small pots, and when 
large enough may be planted out of doors. They are 
hardy, and vary from' eighteen inches to three feet. 
Colours — ^white, all shades of blue, and all shades of 
red ; and, if sown early, bloom the first year. 

Catananche CiERULEA is a short grassy plant, which 
sends .up flower stems a foot long, with a single flower 
on each, a sort of star with square-ended petds, rather 
notchy. There are varieties of blue, white, and white 
with blue centre. Sow the seed in the open air in 
April, and when large enough, plant it out where it is 
to bloom. These are propagated by parting the roots 
in autumn, but there seems very Httle inclination to 
sport. 

Phlox. — ^These are of the most important and exten- 
sive families in the garden, varying in height from siaL 



4s m HAXDI BOOK 

ladies sock m Onnnfloim ADm, to iamt feet sock 



pnie all dades of red and pmple. Hioe aie cqUbo- 
Haorn oi Wfon fluoi. a bmidied Tanetie^ but then is 
Bodung stzfldiig among tibeaL 13iej are noslfy 8eU% 
and in selecting fiir bcndexs we should picfer €or wldftB 
or pink or pmple to hare all of oie kind in each pateh. 
The seed maj be sown in the <yen aii^ and plantrid oot^ 
when laige enoogh idiere thej nu^ Uoom. Qfcoone 
there win be manj different h#>ightB and ccJooib^ from 
whieh the most novd mig^ be selected. This plant k 
lu^dj ornamental in bcndexs; it is parted in tkv 
antiimn fin* i»opagstion, so thst if we nise one with 
aaj noreltj or eyceJlence about il^ we can soon, gst a 
stock of it, and give it a nama like most other £un»- 
Bei^ man J with different names are too mneh alik& 

HojLLTHOCK. — Hus is anotfaffT extensive fimiilj, and 
the best seed jields flowers of idiich the nugoiity is 
like the parent ; so that althoog^ if we can d^end <ml 
the seed, we obtain double and good flowera^ we may 
grow a good man j without getting an j stnking noveltj, 
yet there will be a great portion of the flowerB &o» 
enon^ to ornament the borden^ and qnite as good as 
the parenta 

The seed maj be sown in April, and may be planted 
out in July, or early in Angnst^ either in rows^ to see 
how they torn oot^ or in the borders, if required ; for 
angle ones will be Yesry rare among them if they have 
been saved from double. They comprise all oolouis bat 
blue, and form an elegant spike from six to ei^t feet 
hig^ It Ib usual to cut off the tops, and keep all to 
one height, fire to six feet These are parted for 
propagation, one heart or shoot makings phmt ; and if 
it comes off without a root, let it be struck under a 
hand-^^ass. 

AsTiRBHDruif, OB Skap-dbagon. — ^A great diTersity 

of this phut is now cultiyated, but we look upon many 

ffftbe named Farieties as litQe \)etoc \!baa^«»^ ^^ 



ON OAABENINO./ 48 

must have contrast and striking colour in all bedding 
plants, but among the named sorts there are many so 
lightly spotted, or speckled, or striped, that all marking 
is lost a yard o£^ and we almost need a glass to see the 
beauties described in the catalogues. A pinch of seed 
will yield a good collection, if it hafe been saved from 
striking colours. Sow in April, plant out the end of 
May, and they will bloom the first year. They propa- 
gate freely by cuttings, or parted portions of the root. 
They will grow in any soil, or no soil, for they will 
flourish on the side of a brick wall, growing freely out 
of the cracks. 

Digitalis, or Foxglove. — ^This is a showy and 
hardy plant, which will grow in any soil, but does not 
vary much in colour. Strictly speaking, it is a biennial, 
for it rarely lives after blooming, ^e seed may be 
sown in March or April in the open ground, and be 
planted out when large enough. It is useful, because 
it will grow in poor soil in isolated comers, on rock- 
work, or even on an old walL 

Columbine. — ^If these are carefully selected, a collec- 
tion of the best is very beautiful Some are as dwarf 
as six to nine inches, but the general run is one to two 
feet. The single ones are very poor, and not worth 
garden room, and therefore should be thrown away at 
once ; the double and very double are really beautiful. 
Blue seems the natural colour, but there are various 
shades of red, and some of botiii the red and blue are 
mottled with white. As the flowers are on long grace-i 
fill stems, and form a tree of blooms, they are favourites 
in even choice gardens. The seed may be sown in the 
open air in April, and be planted out as soon as they 
are large enough to handle, nine inches apart, where 
they may be allowed to bloom, and the single ones may 
be thrown away as soon as they show themselves. 

Canterbury Bells. — ^A biennial, which is ^y exLWis^ 
when single, but very rich, and \»woit\Sx3JL^\5kSSG.^vss<^s^sR.s 
uid weU worth a place in any \yycABt. T:>aa ^nSs^^s^^^^^ 



44 THE HANDY BOOK 

is formed with one bell inside another, and it ^ds 
greatly to the richness of the plant. The colours vary 
from white through all the shades of blue. These 
should be sown in April, and be planted out in June or 
July, in store beds nine inches apart, or where they are 
to bloom. 

LupiNUS PoLYPHTLLUS. — ^The best of the perennial 
Lupins will bloom the first year, if sown in March and 
planted out as soon as they can be handled ; but they 
can be made to flower earlier, if raised in heat, and 
potted to grow till the weather is mild enough to turn 
them out. They vary in colour very much, through all 
the shades of blue, and some are white. They have 
the most handsome spikes of all the Lupin tribe, and 
may be propagated by parting the roota They are 
thoroughly luurdy, and may be left in the ground. 

Sweet William. — ^This flower was brought nearly 
to perfection by a gentleman of Wycombe, Mr. Hunt^ 
and the privilege of sending it out to the public was 
given to a nurseryman. All he had to do was to select 
the best, and propagate them; but he unfortunately 
raised the seedlings, and let all out, good and bad, 
before they bloomed, so that the selection, or rather the 
appreciation, was left to people who expected that all 
would be fine alike. Now this was fatal, because it 
takes but little time to let a thing run back, if we de* 
pend on seed, and do not know how to save it He 
did worse, he bloomed them altogether himself good and 
bad, so that there was no dependence to be placed on 
the seed These have only to be sown in the open ground 
in April, and, when large enough,' planted out where 
they are to bloom. 

Wallflower. — ^We have seen acres of Wallflowers 
without a double one apiong them ; but the Germans 
catalogue several double varieties, as brown, purple, 
golden yellow, &c, and they certainly come semi-double, 
and yield seed. They are, in fiwt, different to ours alto- 
S^tber. These seeds have to be aoYraeJooxx^illbx^ «£l^ 



ON GABDISnNG. 45 

be planted out where they are to bloom as soon as they 
can be well handled. The English Wallflower is a fine 
spring flower, though single, and it is not only hardy, 
but will grow on a brick walL The double English 
Wallflower, both the golden yellow and the others, are 
propagated from cuttings when they have grown an 
inch long, after the bloom is oK 

Daisy. — ^What is called double Daisy seed, means 
seed saved from double flowers ; but many of the plants 
will come singla This plant is hardy enough. Sew 
the seed very thinly, and in the open air, some time in 
March ; when they are large enough, plant them out 
six inches apart, and keep them clear of weeds ; for 
they are so close to the ground, that they would be 
smothered, unless often cleaned. They will bloom the 
first year, and all that come single may be thrown awayl 
The double ones will part into many in the autumn or 
sprin:g following. Seed saved from double flowers will 
give about one fourth double. 

VBBBENAa — ^Although these may be sown in the 
open ground, and will bloom the same season, they may 
be hastened a month or six weeks by raising them lik^ 
Stocks and Asters, and planting them out when well 
grown in pots. In this case they should be pricked 
out round the edges of pots when small, and be grown 
in the greenhouse till strong enough to plant out. They 
are propagated by cuttings struck under a bell-glass, 
hastened a little by bottom heat. 

Primula Sinensis. — ^This is sown thinly in pans, to 
be pricked out when they have two pairs of leaves 
besides the seed leaf, and, like all other tender things; 
they do better roimd the side of a pot than any other 
way. When well grown, they may be potted singly in 
three-inch pots, to be ultimately bloomed in pots a size 
larger. These are essentially greenhouse plants, and 
cannot bear the winds and rough out-of-door we».tfcsst. 

Platyoodon Chinensis. — A.ver5\ift«>^Hi&QJO^^^'^"^^2^ 
Sower, beginning to open on t\ie^ ^T? ^"^ ^i::^^^^P^ ^Sas*^*^ 



46 THE HANBT BOOK 

all of which spring from the root, no laterals except of 
the bloom stalks, very like old Campanula Grandiflora, 
but treated of late as a novelty, and grown in the green- 
house. It is, however, a very beautiful and singular 
plants dying down every year like Asparagus, and 
coming up with smiilar buds in the spring. Save the 
seed in the greenhouse, and prick out four or five round 
the edge of a four-inch pot, where they may grow the 
first year. When they die down," let them be without 
water for a month or six weeks, and then shake out the 
roots ; put one each in four-inch pots, and let them grow 
on till tiiey bloom. The seed is scarce, but the roots 
will part for propagation. Very few nurseries appear 
to have plants. 

Veronica. — Some of these are very pretty and hardy. 
Others, although so called, are not so, because a hard 
frost will kill them back to the ground. Andersonii is 
the best Sow the seed in a pan, and when up, prick 
them out in pots three or four in a pot, and when large 
enough,- pot singly. The most hardy are Spicata and 
Spicata Variegata : these may be sown in the open 
ground in Apnl, and will bloom in autumn. 

LiNUM Grandiplorum Eubrum. — ^This seed vege- 
tates very unwillingly if sown in the usual way. Some 
garden conjurors d^ct it to be soaked in hot water, a 
process dangerous in young hands. A friend of ours 
succeeds completely by a less dangerous process. Soak 
in cold rain water twelve hours, wash the glutinous 
stuff away a little, soak agam another twelve hours in 
clean water, and wash again ; do this a third time, then 
let the seed be mixed with dry silver sand ; sow it in 
heat, and gradually bring the plants to greenhouse cul- 
ture, when they may be turned out like other budding 
plants, or grown on in pots; thei-e is no chance of 
killing the seeds this way. 

Heliotrope (Vulgo Cherry-pie). — ^Although there 

«/» many varieties of this plant, the distinctions are 

/ew, None axe striking for their ^o^«ta,\wX>2si«^ «» 



ON GARDENING. 47 

valued for their perfume, (jem is thiB darkest, and 
lilacina the lightest ; but except that some grow yery 
large, and others small, we should hardly care which 
we cultivated. It is not worth raising from seed, unless 
a quantity be wanted with a chance of anything new. 
There is not a decided colour in the whole family. The 
seed may be sown early in spring, pricked out and potted ; 
when large enough they may be planted out as soon as 
the weather permits, for they are tender, and any that 
are worth it may be potted up for propagation. This 
may be considered one .of the most tender of bedding 
plants. 

MiMULUs.— May be sown in early spring out of doors, 
but is hastened by in-door culture. The seed must be 
sown thinly, and the young plants treated like Calceo- 
laria, except that the Mimulus must be frequently 
watered, and would bear standing the pots in saucers 
of water. They may be changed from pot to pot until 
they are as large as you wish them to be, and you 
shoidd pull off the first buds, and top the first joiut, to 
make them throw out laterals. These are very beautiM 
bedding plants, constantly blooming till cut off by the 
frost ; but any that indicate novelty should have all the 
cuttings taken off at once, and even the old plants potted 
up before the frost takes them. This plant is improving 
year by year in size and colour. 



A FEW WOfiDS ON SOILS. 

Loam is the best soil that we can meet with in a 
garden, and the deeper it goes down the better, but two 
good spits will be sufficient to constitute good garden 
ground ; such soil only requires to be reinstated after 
being impoverished by crops. Ordinary stable dung, 
vegetable mould, or decayed animal riiatter, are stimu- 
lants, and any of them will restore the strength, 
- Clay is the worst soil ior aJX ^xslT^o^^^, ^Ja5ss335s» \^ 
tenacity ia counteracted by soxxiQ Txie^s^^ % ^Oaa^ss^^'^ «Ss!» 



48 'OLE HAKDT BOOK 

cacious is buming abont thirty tons of it to each acre, aiid 
spreading it over the soil that it may be mixed irith it. 
Bi a garden there are many ways <^ improving it, the 
mixture of peat earth, dung, lime, sand, or any thing 
tending to open the pores is beneficial, and' the more it 
is worked the better it becomes. 

Gravelly Soil is only bad because it wastes so 
much of the manure and lacks moisture ; in dry weather 
the crops are a good deal distressed and sometimes fail 
altogether. Ground being stony is not always an eviL 
If the soil in which the stones appear be loamy, it will 
bring excellent crops, although inconvenient as to 
flower beds and borders ; the distinction, however, is 
that one is only stony soil, the other is gravelly. 

Sandy Soil is always hungry and unprofitable when 
the sand is in excess. This can only be cured or even 
assisted by admixture with clay or strong loam: a load 
of loam or clay would do more good than two loads of 
manure, but it should always be dressed with both. 

Peat Earth is the top three or four inches of those 
wastes or commons in which heaths naturally flourish, 
and this is valuable as a medium in which to grow all 
the Erica family, most American plants, and many of those 
which come from the Cape. As it is fiill of vegetable 
fibre half decomposed and sand, it is used with certain 
portions of loam and dung, according to the plants in- 
tended to be grown; but being extremely light and 
spongy, it is of the greatest benefit in all composts for 
potting, because it opens the pores and enables us to 
bring soils to anythii^ we require. 

Bog Earth is the black vegetable soil which is found 
in bogs, and is seldom used in any quantity, but it is 
often misdescribed, and some writers speak of both peat 
and bog as if they were the same ; there is as muck 
difference as between light and heavy. Take lands 
generally, the light lands are improved by admixtures 
of loam, clay and lime ; the heavy lands by dressing of 
bazned clay, Band, peat and dung. 



ON GAia)£NI9a. 49 

I 

LtQtTII) UAKtmfiS. 

Guano. — Disaolve two ounces in two gallons of 
water. This, like most other liquid manures, must be 
used instead of water every fourth time of waterings 
not continuously. 

Thb DuAimNQ OF THE Dunohill varies a good deal 
in strength. Lnmediately after rain^ one meamire of it to 
two measiires of water will be sufficient ; but it will be 
80 much stronger the second day, that you must only 
use one measure to four. 

The DRAiNiKoe of Stables, which are aU animal, 
must only be used in the proportion of one to eight. 
So also with slops from the house. 

Liquid Manure made with decomposed horse-dung 
may be made with a good spadeful^ or half-peck meah 
sure, to ten gallons of water, and that from decomposed 
cow-dung, a spadeful to eight gallons of water ; dheep, 
rabbits', or deer's, a spadeful to eight gallons of water.. 

Everything depends on the strength of what we use ; 
'the adriial animal liquid must never be used in larger 
proportions than one to eight 



DESTRUCTION OF VERMIN. 

MioB. — ^Arsenic between two slices of bread and 
butter will destroy a dozen, if there be as many, in a 
single night. 

Snails and Sluob.^— Lay cabbage-leaves about the 
ground, and every morning examine the under side, 
ontil there is not one to be seen. . 

Earwigs. — Lay lengths of bean-stalk about nine 
inches long on the ground and on the plant, and every 
morning blow them out into salt and water. It is 
better than pots on the top of stakes. 

Grbsn-flt. — ^Fumigating mtk \»\i«iRR.^ -q?tiss$5b*'>^^ ^aa^ 
be don^ is the most effectuaL Tii«^\i<»M»'>^^'^'^^^^^''^ 



60 THE UANBI BOOK 

the plants affected should be collected, most be qnite 
filled with the smoke, and shut up close; the next 
morning they should be syringed witJi clean water with 
the chill taken oK When plants are out of doors, they 
may be syringed with tobacco water, and afterwards 
witiii plain water. Many prefer putting some kind of 
covering over the plant, and fumigating ; but you may 
syringe a whole collection of roses in Uie time taken to 
fumigate half a dozen. Tobacco water should be of the 
strei^^ that enables you to taste the weed, but not 
strong enough to bite the tongue. 

Mbaly Bug. — Soap suds, warm as milk, made with 
yellow soap, and a brush that will reach the comers, 
such as a new shaying-brush, will clean them out better 
than anything else ; and when' you have gone over the 
plants with it, go, over them agam with clean warm 
water. 

The Soalb must be removed, for it is like the shell 
of the tortoise ; it protects them from everything but 
actual violence. However tedious the process, they 
must be scraped off with a blunt-edged piece of wood, 
or the thin handle of a budding knife, or a stiffl)rush« 
The use of urine and soft soap to hard-wooded plants is 
said to be effectual 

Thb Eed SpmBR—rOccasionally steaming the house, 
and frequent S3rringing of the plants, are positive pre^ 
ventives ; and if neglected till the pest has got fair hold 
of a plant, they can only be extirpated by the same 
means in a more violent degree. Bl^ick sulphur pow- 
dered on the leaves will destroy them where, it goes ; 
but as these enemies attack the under side, they often 
get overlooked, until they have seriously ii\jured a 
plant 

Antb. — ^These are dangerous enemies when they get 

among plants. They sometimes form a little colony in 

a pot, work among the roots, form the whole ball 

jUiio a sorb of sponge. In such case, it is the surest 

jmaeKfy to. aUmd ph^ in wa;tex tiiU \!bfi^ «sa dsomaad ; 



ON OARDEMING. 51 

but the plant will then have to be drained, and re-potted 
in fresh soil 

Ants in the Ground. — If their chief hannts can be 
found, and there be no plants to injure, a kettle or two 
of boiling water will despatch a whole colony. If thej 
are where you cannot get at them for plants, make a 
number of perpendicuhur holes with a smooth rod two 
or three feet deep, and they will fall in by hundreds, 
and cannot get up again. 

Garden Worms. — ^These are often troublesome on 
lawns and gravel walks. Water with lime-water, and it 
brings them up to the surface; before they recover, 
pick them up and destroy them. 



THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH PLANT-HOU8E8 SHOULD 
BE KEPT DURING EACH MONTH IN THE TEAR. 

January. The Greenhoiue* — From forty to forty-five 
degrees by day, and from thirty-five to forty degrees by 
night The Conservatory, — From fifty-five to sixty de- 
grees by day, and about forty-five degrees by night 
The Plant Stove. — ^From fifty-five to sixty degrees by 
day, and from fifty to fifty-five degrees by night The 
Orchid House, — ^The flowering-house from sixty to sixty- 
five degrees by day, and fi^-five to sixty degrees by 
night ; the testing-house from six to ten degrees colder. 

February. I%>e Greenhouse. — From forty to fifty 
degrees by day, and from thirty-five to forty degrees by. 
night I%e ConaervcUory. — From fifty to sixty degrees 
by day, and about forty-five degrees by night The 
Plant Stove. — From sixty to seventy degrees by day, 
and from fifty-five to sixty degrees by night The Orchid 
Mouse. — ^Warm or Indian house from sixty to seventy 
degrees by day, and from fifty-five to sixty degrees by 
night ; cool or Mexican house from five to ten degrees 
lower. 

March. The Greenhouse. "Fioia ior^^-^^ *^ "sj&s^ 
degrees hjr daj, and from tljiity-^N^ V> to^^-^^ ^^fi;s©M» 

D 2 



52 THE HANDY BOOK 

by night The Conservaiaiy. — From fifty-five to sixty- 
five degrees by day, and about forty-five d^rees by 
night. 27ie Plant Stove. — From seventy to eighty 
degrees by day, and from sixty to sevenly degrees by 
night The Orchid Hovse, — ^The warm or Indian house 
eighty degrees by day, and seventy degrees by night ; 
the cool or Mexican house seventy-five degrees by day, 
and from sixty to sixty-five degrees by night 

April. The GreenhoiLse. — From forty-five to fifty- 
five degrees by day, and from thirty-five to forty-five 
degrees by night, allowing five degrees more when 
sunny. The Conservatory, — ^From fifty-five to sixty- 
five degrees by day, and from forty-five to fifty d^preea 
by night The Plant Stove, — From seventy to eighty 
degrees by day, and about sixty-five degrees by night 
2%e (hxhid nouse, — The warm or Indian house from 
seventy to eighty-five* degrees by day, and from sixty- 
five to seventy degrees by night ; the Mexican or cool 
house may be kept from five to ten degrees lower. 

May. The Chreenhouse. — From fifty-five to sixty de- 
grees by day, and forty-five degrees by night The 
Con^servatory, — From sixty-five to seventy degrees by 
day, and about fifty degrees by night The Plant SUme. 
— From seventy-five to eighty degrees by day, and 
occasionally higher with sun heat, and from sixty to 
sixty-five degrees by night The Orchid House, — ^The 
warm or Indian house from eighty to ninety degrees by 
day, or more by sun heat, and about seventy degrees l^ 
night; the cool or Mexican house may range about 
seventy-five degrees, or rather more with sun heat, €aid 
sixty-five degrees by night 

June. The Greenhouse, — ^From fifty to sixty-five 
degrees by day, and fifty degrees by night Th€ 
Conservatory, — From seventy to seventy-five degrees 
by day, and about fifty-five degrees by night The 
Plant Stove, — From eighty to eighty-five degrees by 
day, and sixty-five degrees by night The Orchid 
^^ouse, — ThQ warm or Indian liQitts^ ixorccL eiy^X^-^^ 



OK GABDENHra* 58 

to ninety degrees by day, and about seventy degrees by 
night ; the cool or Mexican house, seventy-five de- 
grees by day, and sixty-five degrees by night 

July. The Greenhouse, — From sixty-five to seventy 
degrees by day, and from fifty to sixty degrees by 
night The Conservatory, — From sixty to seventy 
degrees by day, and fiom fifty-five to sixty degrees by 
night The Plant Stove, — ^From seventy to eighty-fivfe 
degrees by day, and from sixty to seventy d^rees by 
night The Orchid House, — ^The warm or bidian house, 
from eighty-five to ninety degrees by day, and seventy 
degrees by night; the cool or Mexican house, from 
seventy-five to eighty degrees by day, and from sixty 
to sixty.five degrees by night 

August. The Greenhouse. — From seventy to seventy- 
five degrees by day, and from sixty to sixty-five degrees 
by night The Conservatory, — From sixty-five to 
seventy degrees by day, and sixty degrees by night, 
and shade in bright weather. The Plant Stove, — From 
seventy to eighty-five degrees by day, and from sixty- 
five to seventy degrees by night The Orchid House. — 
The warm or Indian house from eighty-five to ninety 
degrees by day, and seventy-five degrees by night ; the 
cool or Mexican house from seventy-five to eighty de- 
grees by day, and sixty-five degrees by night 

Seftembbr. T/ie Greenhouse, — Fxom sixty to seventy 
degrees by day, and from forty-five to fifty degrees by 
night. The Conservatory, — ^From sixty to seventy de- 
grees by day, and from forty-five to fifty degrees by 
night The Plant Stove, — From seventy-five to eighty 
degrees by day, and from sixty to sixty-five degrees by 
night The Orchid House, — ^The warm or IndiMi house 
eighty-five degrees by day, and seventy degrees by night ; 
the cool or Mexican house seventy-five degrees by day, 
and sixty degrees by night 

OoTOBBR. The Greenhouse, — From sixty ta ^^cs^- 
five degrees by day, and a\>o\3Lt ^ot\;^-%^i<^ ^^j^»<5s.>s^ 
night The Conservatory,— Yxovd. mlX.^ ^^^ ."^^^^^"^"^ 
degrees by day, and about Mty dfe^e«»^^l \i^5^« 



54 THE HANBT BOOK 

Plant Stove, — ^From sixty-five to seventy-five de^es 
by day, and from fifty-five to sixty degrees by night. 
The Orchid Himse. — ThQ wann or Indian house, from 
eighty degrees by day, and about seventy degrees by 
night; the cool or Mexican house, from seventy de- 
grees by day, and about sixty degrees by night. 

KovEMBEB. The Grreenhimse, — From forty-five to 
fifty degrees by day, and about forty degrees by night. 
The Comervatory.-^^Tom fifty-five to sixty degrees by 
day, and fix)m forty-five to fifty degrees by night, and 
use fires occasionally in damp "v^eather. The Plant Stove. 
— From sixty to sixty-five degrees by day, and fipom 
fifty to fifty-five degrees by night The Orchid House, 
— ^The warm or Indian house from sixty-five to seventy 
degrees by day, and about sixty degrees by night ; the 
cool or Mexican house, from sixty degrees by day, arid 
fifty-five degrees by night 

Decembeir. The Greenhouse. — ^From forty to fifty 
degrees by day, and thirty-five to forty degrees at night, 
or just safe from frost The Conservaiiory, — ^About fifty- 
five degrees by day, and from forty-five to fifty degrees 
by night The Plant Stove. — ^About sixty degrees by 
day, and about fifty degrees by night. The Orchid House. 
—The warm or Indian house, from sixty-five to seventy 
degrees by day, and from fifty-five to sixty d^ees by 
night ; the cool or Mexican house, sixty degrees by 
day, and fifty degrees by night 

Shades fob Plant Houses. — ^The best we know of 

' are rolling cloths outside. The cloth is fastened to the 

top of the roof, covers all the slope and down to the 

brickwork in front; a roller being fast to the lower part 

of the cloth, this is drawn up, and when quite closed it 

is fastened under a sort of roof just wide enough to 

cover it from the weather ; these are manufactured by 

Benjamin Edgington, of Duke Street, London Bridge, 

who has a good deal to do with shades of various 

textures, waterproofed and otherwise, for conserva- 

toriea, tulip heda^ and the like. 



ON OABDlNINQw 65 



GOLDEN EULES FOR GARDENING. 



Neteb trost your choice plants to the management of 
ordinary men. Too much or too little water will greatly 
damage them ; and none but he who has watered them 
knows what they want 

Never waste animal or vegetable refuse. The very 
soapsuds fiom the laundry are rich manure. 

Whenever you have the opportunity, dig in the waste 
of the crop you took off; it is so much good returned. 

Have til flower-pots washed, dried, and put away as 
soon as they are empty. Never put the most common 
plant in a dirty pot 

Never fill a pot so full of soil but that it may hold 
water enough to go through it : every pot should have 
half an inch left for water. 

Never grow a bad variety of anything, if you can 
help it It takes the same room, and wants the same 
attention as a good one. 

Study economy in the means you use to grow every- 
thing. It is impossible to be too careful in this matter. 

Never look out for cheap seed-shops. It is only by 
getting good prices that a seedsman can supply articles 
to be depended on. 

Let the draining of the ground be your first care. It 
is impossible to succeed to any extent with vegetables 
or flowers where the water is stagnant in the soil 

Cover all seeds with at least their own thickness of 
soil ; but as some of it gets washed off, you must allow 
for it 

Gather fruit in dry weather and with the sun ahims^s;|^^ 
and place them as earefuHy in. \j!Qfe\5!w^^\»%s^*^*^s^K^ 
were glaaa. The smaUe&t \>i:\usfe ooTSMBossaRRA ^ ^^R*^- 



60 TSB HAHBT BOOK 

Never subject a plant to a rapid change of tempera- 
ture. Sudden check or sudden excitement are equally 
injurious. 

-Unless joa want seed, remove the flower stems as 
soon as the bloom decays. The swelling of the seed pods 
checks the further growth and blossom of most plants. 

Never grow the same crops nor crops of the same 
family twice on the same spot without an intervening 
orop of a different nature. 

Never transplant shrubs and trees in a growing state. 
However careMly it may be done, the check is danger* 
pus, if not fatal 

Keep all kinds of pknts under glass, as close as pos- 
sible to the light : there is no exception, unless it be 
some orchidaceous plants. 

Never tie up lettuces or endive, or earth up celery, 
except when perfectly dry. They are sure to spoil if 
you do. 

Never crowd your plants in or out of doors. Half 
the plants under glass axe spoiled by this alone, and 
much of the nursery stock is ugly from the same cause 
also. 

Keep your plants clean. Dust and dirt on. leaves 
make £e plant unhealthy, and wiU in time kiU it 

Plunge even hardy plants that are potted. A ftost 
which could never reach the roots below the surface 
may destroy all the fibres if the pot be exposed 

Never allow the surface of the soil in a pot or in the 
ground to be long without stirring, unless it be naturally 
very open, as is the case with peat earth. 

Never pot a plant without giving one-fourth in 
height of crocks (broken pots) or other drainage to the 
other three of compost 

Never grow a plant too fast : it is no credit to you, 

because anybody can do it, and it spoils the plant to a 

certainty. 

Never train or support a plant unnaturally. Climbers 

wiUnot do banging about. Traileia "wilV i^<^\» ^o <^£a!:^x&%. 



ON GABDENINCL 67 

Grow a plant as it would grow naturally, and supply 
only what in such case nature does not 

Never sweep a gravel-walk with an old broom. It 
not only tears the edging, but it also scrapes up the 
walk itself. 

Mow lawns before the dew is off the grass, unless 
you have a machine, which cuts it best when dry. 

Bapid growth makes a nuld flavour, slow growth a 
strong one. Therefore grow vegetables quick, and fruit 
moderately. The exceptions are where size is valued 
more than flavour. 

Never tear out the bast from any mat^ but devote a 
new one to tying purposes, and have that pulled to 
pieces at once, and kept damp. 

Temper stable dung by repeated shakings out^ water- 
ings if too dry, and turnings over before you use it 
for hot-beds or linings. If this be not done, it will 
bum. 

CarefuUy preserve the fSedlen leaves of trees, and pro- 
cure as many as you can ; when rotted into mould the 
produce is invaluabla 

Keep youjT seeds, bulbs, tubers, &c., in a place where 
neither heat^ nor frosty nor damp can reach them ; for 
either of these would destroy many. 

Waste not a pint of rain water. Let every drop 
be caught somehow, for it is the best of all water for 
plants. 

Hoe the surface of the groimd all over once a fort- 
nighty upon the same principle as servants sweep the 
ioom& 

Let not the moisture that runs &om the dung-heap 
be wasted ; it is too good for the cultivated part of the 
ground, to be lost to it. 

Never allow weeds to bloom ; it is the worst proof 
of thoughtlessness. One day devoted this year will 
save a month's application next 

Never remove a plant from. ci1!l<& ^%sife ^3^^ ^^^^^ ^sRk 
ready to put it in another, \m\ftaa \ft ^^ei^ yv.^ <iL\s^ 



58 TOR HAin)Tv BOOK 

yrhenever a plant su£fers the loss of root, always 
prune off a corresponding portion of the head. 

Cut off with a sharp knife whatever part of a root 
may be broken, bruised, or damaged ; it instantly com- 
mences a decay. 

Never trample on the ground in wet weather, or while 
the ground is swampy; rather delay the work. Even 
planting out things, is better as the ground dries a Uttle. 

Encourage robins and toads. They are good fdends 
to gardeners, because they destroy their enemies. 

' Procure, whenever you can, turves cut from a pasture, 
to lay in a heap and rot " A store is no sore." It is 
the best of all composts. 

Never allow the greenhouse, hot-house, or pits, to be 
so hot in the night as by day. 

Never light a fire for the greenhouse while you can 
keep ont the fix)st by covering up. 

Constantly examine your plants, to watch for the 
enemy's attack. The mealy bug, scale, green-fly, and 
red-spider must never get ahead of you. 

The syringe is the gardener's Mend; weU appUed 
under and over the leaves, it routs the insect tribe, and 
saves immense trouble of catching and killing. 

Never use a clammy soil for potting plants. It is 
impossible they can grow well in it 

Always trench the ground before sowing carrots, 
parsnips, and beet-root 

Always keep frozen plants from the rays of the sun 
till they have completely thawed. 

Cover seeds from birds with a mat until they are well 
up, and then devote a day or two to actually scaring the 
enemy, until the plants gain strength. 

Prune all ornamental blooming trees and shrubs as 
soon as the flower has decayed : before they make their 
new growth, you can shape them as you like. 

To poor sandy soil one load of marl or loam is worth 
^wo of dung; but give both if you can, and lime into 
^Iie bargain. 



ON OABDENING. 59 

The instant you see a moth, butterfly, op wasp, catch 
it and kill it You know not how many you prevent 
fipom annoying you afterwards. 

Let your rule for shifting a plant be when its roots 
begin to cross each other at the sides, and before they 
became matted 

' Always give plants all the air you can without lower- 
ing the temperature too much. 

Let plants stand hollow at the bottom. A flat 
bottom to the pot and a flat sheK will, after watering, 
€)xclude air for hours. There should be grooves along 
the shelves. 

In apportioning crops, never grow too much of any- 
thing that does not last in season, and will not keep 
when gathered in. 

Li removing trees and shrubs, never loose a fibre by 
violence. You can remove what you please with the 
knife ; but if broken off or chopped, you lose the best. 

Li all your maiif operations, perform or superintend 
as much as possible yourself. Plants do not like changes 
of masters. They get fed too much, or starved. 

Leave your newly-trenched or dug ground rough 
until you crop it. In winter time it is exceedingly 
beneficial 

When a crop is done with, clear it off, lay on your 
dressing, and at once dig or trench the ground ; put all 
the waste vegetable to the bottom; it is so much 
nourishment returned, and the groimd looks neat. 

Never lose an hour's favourable weather for opera- 
tions dependent on it ; for a hard firost may close the 
garden against you for weeks, and throw you altogether 
out of your calculation. 

Kever water a general crop till it actually begins to 
suffer ; for rain may render it unnecessary, and watering 
once begun you must go on with it. 

When you do water, drench the ground all over. 
One soaking a- week is better tViaxL ^«s^i\A^«^KTO!^%^s^'a3sr^ 
day; and rain may save you a Wtdltlo^ «ssi^*'^sss8s^ 



eO THE HANBX BOOK 

When you are provided with valuable seed or plants 
by your employer, keep th^n to yourself some tima It 
is no use to buy expensive things, if others are allowed 
to share it too soon. 

Euy nothing in " collections of named varieties." 
You get forty-nine useless for one useluL Find out 
which are best, and purchase them only. 

Propagate nothing but what is useM. You may soon 
get crowded with plants you do not want, and find 
yourself short of what is of real service. 

Sow everything thinly and evenly. Never waste 
seed by stiating it of room. The plants are always the 
worse for it 

B^gin pruning in time to get all done by the proper 
season. Those which are pruned too early t^e in- 
finitely less harm than those left too late. 

Thin all sorts of fruit ; not merely those on the wall, 
— ^for everybody does that^ — ^but those on standards. 
Let there not be one above an average crop. The tree 
will give you this every year. 

Drench your American or bog plants with water as 
soon as they flower, and never leave off till they have 
completed their growth. They will never fail to set 
their bloom. 

Cover your trees on a south wall from the sun all the 
winter, rather than from frost Your whole study should 
be to keep them back. In the spring cover lightly 
from both. 

Loosen your trees from the wall where it is prac- 
ticable, at least all the young wood. It retards the 
bloom, which will, by being later, get better over the 
spring changes. 

Let no covering of trees, beds, houses, pits, or glasses, 
exclude the daylight Plants cannot do Well in the 
dark. 

Kever roll gravel walks until rain has soaked into 
them and they have dried enough to prevent any stick- 
JU3^ to the Toiler, 



ON GABBENING. 61 

* 

Never allow grass verges to intrude upon your roads 
or walks. Keep them in check by the edging iron, 
and your paths and roads clean with the hoe. 

Gro round the place after a shower of rain to see 
where the water lies, and fail not to fill up the hollows 
in time. 

Never let one branch on a plant take up the growth 
to the disparagement of the rest. Cut it clean back to 
where it starts from, rather than let it conquer. 

Never see a flower or plant blown about for want of 
a stake. If broken oif they cannot be mended, and 
after lying on the ground long they never recover their 
beauty. 

Study the habitat of plants ; find out where ^hey 
come from, and it is a safe guide. 

A hardy plant may come from a warm country, but a 
stove plant cannot come from a cold one. 

Never try experiments with the only plant you have ; 
but when you have two or more, do as you like. 

American plants are of easy culture, if we set about 
it in the right way. 

Never have a straight path in a landscape garden, nor 
a bent one in a kitchen garden. 

In a geometrical flower-garden plant everything uni- 
form. 

In all uniform flower-beds, have not only uniform 
colours, but the same plants also. 

Always contrive to have a succession of plants that 
will be in flower as soon as possible after planting. 

Imitate Nature in landscape gardening ; not in her 
most ugly, but her most attractive features. 

Carry out all your planting plans as much as possible 
with evergreens ; they look well in the winter. 

Keep all verges of grass well trimmed, the paths well 
weeded, the shrubs weE pruned. 

In cheosing flowers, select those which have a large 
proportion of bloom compared with tlaa ia^^Mig^, 

Hardy flowers are very intei^Xim^. 



62 THE HANDT BOOK 

In forcing flowers, bring everything into the higher 
temperature gradually : to submit a plant from cold to 
heat suddenly is destructive of the flowers. 

All hard-wooded plants force better the second year 
than the first, if they are permitted to complete tiieir 
growth after flowering, and have rest 

When flowers are nearly opened, they must be gra- 
dually inured to colder temperatures. Taken suddenly 
from heat to cold they flag, and often do not recover. 

Pot them with plenty of room for their roots, and in 
son free from dung ; you do not want to excite growth. 

Window gardening is very like greenhouse culture^ 
and the nearer you assimilate the practice the better. 



GOLDEN RULES ON CULTURE. 



CULTURE OF THB AURICULA. 

Avoid all nostrums in the Compost It may be rich 
in vegetable mould, or cow-dung, porous by means of 
peat earth, and strong by means of good loam. 

Never pot a plant without removing every symptom 
of decay. The smallest bit left will increase, and destroy 
the plant in tima 

Always keep the collar of the plant even with iihe 
surface of the soil 

Water seldom in winter time, and never till they 
want it 

Frequently examine the drainage, and see that the 
water exudes freely. A stoppage is soon fatal 

Remove leaves as soon as they begin to turn yellow. 

In open weather let them have all the air you can 
give them ; but not in damp weather or east winds. 

Never fail to top-dress them in February with decom- 
posed cow-dung and a little sand, or if you have poultry- 
dung rotted into mould, one-fourth, with the same of 
Joain, sand, and cow-dung. 



ON OAEDENINO. 63 

Ftom plants intended to bk)om strong, remove side 
shoote as soon as they are large enough to take off and 
strike. 

_ • 

When they show the colour of their bloom, remove 
them to shelter and shade, to open, and adjust the pips 
to form a neat truss. 

As soon as the bloom declines, put them on a dry 
hard bottom, to receive all the weather but the mid-day 
sun until July ; then protect from heavy rains. 

In August turn them out of their pots, examine their 
roots, remove all canker, and repot in new soil They 
must then be returned to their £cames. 



CULTURE OP THE TULIP. 

Fix your spot for the bed in the best drained part of 
the garden, a^ make it four feet wide. 

Always dig out the soil two feet deep at the least, and 
fill it with loam froin rotted turves. 

Plant the fbulbs six inches apart every way, and six 
inches from the edge of the bed. This makes seven 
rows the length of the bed 

Arrange your bulbs so as to have the same varieties 
on both sides of the middle ilower. Of course it requires 
two of a sort in a row. 

Plant the lowest outside, the highest in the middle, 
and the intermediate heights between. 

liet your rule for planting be the bulb beginning to 
swelL The instant it begins growing out of the ground 
it commences a weakening process. 

Generally plant from the 15th October to 15th No- 
vember, always in dry weather, three inches deep from 
the tip or crown. 

Never use a dibble; level your bed; place all the 
bulbs, and throw the dry soil .on them thick enough. 

For' an ordinary blooin, let the bed have all the 
weather till the bulbs are up : for exhibitick\SL^ \s^ ^as^ 
frost touch them, nor the soil \]\[i&^ ozc^ m. 



84 TBS HAKDT BOOK 

When they aie up an ineh, stir the waa&ce of the 
earth, bmise the lumps, and lay it close loimd all the 
spikes. 

Cover from frosts, nnder any circumstances, when 
the leaves begin to open. 

^ever let a weed appear among them. It inrjures the 
bnlb, and looks nnsigbtly. 

When they show colour, they must be ediaded from 
the sun, which, if not kept o% would greatly shorten 
the bloom. 

When the bloom has declined, pick off all the seed- 
pods, and remove all coverings ; and after the first rain, 
stir the surface. 

When the stem has turned yellow, and the leaves 
begin to decay, take up all the bulbs. 

Dry them in the shade with the dirt aU about them ; 
and when thoroughly dry, clean them and put them 
away. 

Save seed from a fBW of the best kinds planted toge- 
ther without any protection. 

Sow a little seed every year. You will one day find 
a little fortime in your stock. There is room for much 
improvement 

Bather destroy seedlings that have not broken than 
let them out ; for others would be breaking the same 
flowers as your own, and giving them new names. 

Never sow seed of which you do not know the origin ; 
for it is seven years before you see whether it be good 
or bad. 

Examine the bulbs in store frequently ; because they 
are subject to mildew, mice, and the green-fly. 



OULTURB OP THE PANST. 

Let the ground be well drained, and well dressed 
with decomposed cow-dung ; and if too adhesive, fork 
ia a little sancL 



ON GARBSNtNO, 66 

'* Plant nine inches apart, and cloee the earth Well 
iabout the roots. 

Always take side shoots springing from the hottom 
for propagating, if you can get them. They always root 
freely, if not rooted when token off 

Avoid taking hollow pipey shoots for cuttings. . To 
ensure striking, the bottom of the shoots, when cut iq) 
to the base of a leaf, should be solid 

Shade all cuttings, and cover ^lose with a hand or 
bell glass, whether they are in frames, boxes, pots, or 
the open ground. 

Continue plimting beds of struck cuttings^ to succeed 
one another in flower. It is only from young plants 
WB can get fine blooms. 

Shade all blooms for exhibition. An hour's hot sun 
would destroy the finest flowers in the bed. 

Save seed from half a dozen of the finest varieties 
you possess, planted by themselves away from all others. 

Sow as soon as you save it, in May, June, July, and 
August, as it may happen. 

Plant them out as soon as they have four tough 
leaves ; but press the earth to the roots every time the 
frost and thaw disturbs them. 

In winter, if you have convenience, hoop and mat, or 
otherwise cover the bed — ^if with nothing else, with Htfcer. 

In spring, the beds of seedlings or established plants 
may have half an inch thickness of dung from an old 
hot-bed, or well decomposed cow-dung. 

As fast as any seedlings bloom inferior to those you 
have, pull them up and throw them away. 

Never wait for any particular season for taking oiff 
side shoots : take them whenever you can get them 
without distressing the plants. 

Water seldom, but effectually: soak the whole bed 
to a considerable depth. 

Towards October pot all cuttings that you do not 
want to plant out, and keep them imdei! ^lasa \sl ti^ss^ssi^b- 
potsL ^ 



66 THE HANBT BOOK 

If you bloom any in pots, use seyen or eight-inch 
pots, with a compost of two-thirds loam from rotted 
turves, and one-third cow-dung, or dung from an old 
melon-bed. 

IN'ever save a seedling that is not better than those 
We possess already. All novelties that are not improve- 
ments are useless. 

Whenever the surface of the bed has run together 
solid, stir the top one or two inches, always closing the 
earth to the roots. 

Never allow a weed to grow in the bed. A little 
neglect in this matter will give you a world of trouble. 

ITever remove a good seedling till you have propa- 
gated it a Httle. When you have cuttings struck, you 
can do as you like with it. 

Never remove a plant from heavy soil to Hght, with- 
out washing out all the old soil from the roots. 

Plant your principal spring blooming bed in October ; 
the succession ones any time when the plants and the 
weather suit. 



CULTURE OP THE PINK. 

Never grow a pink in poor soiL It is not like some 
flowers, which merely grow less ; but it actually loses 
its character. 

Prefer cow-dung to horse-dung ; but either should 
b^ fairly rotted mto mould. 

Let the loam you use be that obtained by laying 
common turves, cut as if for lawns, up to rot It is 
good at two years old. 

Use two parts loam, and one part dung ; and make 
your bed eighteen inches deep. 

Plant nine inches apart, as bood. afber July as you 
can get your plants. 

Never let more than one stem go up to each plant, 
MOT more than two buds be left on to bloom : any very 
crowded fowers excepted. 



ON GABDENING. 67 

When in flower, take off the bottom shoots for 
pipings. The top three joints are to be used. 

Mix up some of the proper pink soil, with a little 
sand to strike your pipings in. , 

Stick the pipings half an inch in the compost, and 
freely water ; cover close with a shallow hand-glass, 
and shade them. 

As the bloom pods swell, tie them round the middle 
with a piece of matting, to prevent the calyx from 
bursting. 

As the petals develop themselves, assist them down 
into their places, and shade them always from the hot 
sun. 

Give them, from the time they swell their pods to 
bursting, Hquid manure (a gallon of decomposed cow- 
dung to five gallons of water) once to three plain 
^¥aterings. 

Never leave in the bloom a self-coloured petal : take 
it out when you first see it ; for one of these will con- 
demn a whole stand of flowers. 

Never let your pipings under the glass get dry ; for 
it is certain destruction. 

When rooted, , remove them into their permanent 
beds, or into store beds, three inches apart in the row, 
and the rows six inches. 

Never delay planting till the spring, if you can get 
your plants in autumn. The sooner they are settled 
down, the finer they bloom. 



CULTURE OP THE BOSB. 

Be not afraid of using the knife. One eye is enough 
to leave of any branch on the last year's growth, unless 
you want more to form the plant 

Strong loam, two-thirds, and one-third dun^^ ^KlI 
grow the rose to perfection \ "WX. qtk^cwsc^ ^gs^^ra^^ 



68 THE HANDY BOOK 

ground, with a good spadefdl of dung to each plant, 
will do. 

Standard roses should *be as wide across the head as 
the lower hranches are high fix)ni the ground. 

In, pruning, retain all healthy branches that are 
growing in a right direction ; but once get the form of 
your head, spur close every year. 

Cut down all upright growing branches to the height 
you want side ones, leaving the top bud pointing in the 
direction they ought to grow. 

For the general feature of your garden use none but 
continuous bloomers ; that is, those of the nature of 
the common China. 

Summer roses which bloom a month and no more are 
worthless, except for exhibitions which take place that 
month. 

K you will grow summer roses, give them a portion 
of the garden to themselves. Never let their flowerless 
heads cast a gloom over the borders from July till 'No- 
vember. 

Half prune in the autumn, to lessen the weight which 
has to stand against the wind : finish in February. 

In planting roses, never fail to cut off with a clean 
sharp cut every portion of damaged root Bruised ends 
and ragged woimds are often fatal 

Plant briers, and other stocks for budding, in the 
autumn, that they may be well established when wanted. 

Bud roses when the bark of the stock will part easily 
from the wood, and be very rapid in performing the 
operation. 

Bud as close as possible to the main stock. It makes 
a better head, and is close to its support 

Put cuttings of roses in the open ground in October 
and November, two joints underground and one or two 
i^re. 

Get roses, as soon as you can, into the form you want 

Cut every year's growth back to a single eye or two. 
^Sa applies to dwarfs, standards, b\»hfia, and climbersj 



ON OAEDENING. 69 

A tender rose on a standard will take less harm if 
lifted and laid in by the heels, under shelter, than it 
will if it stands out Plant again in the spring in its 
proper place. 

TendJer roses may, nevertheless, if you like the ap-. 
pearance, be tied in close, and covered with moss, straw,, 
or matting, or even with an oiled paper cap. 

Cut off all fading flowers. It helps the remainder, 
and prolongs the bloom, besides looking neat and clean. 

Strike all cuttings at the fall of the leaf in preference 
to any other time, and an ordinary border will do for 
them. 

China varieties that grow and bloom all the year 
under glass may be budded or grafted at any time, so 
that the stock be also China and growing. 



CULTURE OP CARNATION AND PICOTEE. 

Have soil for blooming in, rich, lights strong, and 
porous ; loam from rotted turves, dung rotted to mould, 
and clean turfy peat, in equal portions by measure, well 
mixed 

Choose plants with healthy green foHage, free from 
spot or stain, and without side shoots, in September, 
well rooted. 

Pot them two in a forty-eight sized pot, in clean 
undunged loam from rotted turves. 

Let every grain of soil go through the hand, to detect 
any living enemy, such as wire-worm, grub, earwig; 
also any nests of eggs. 

Keep them all the winter dry, cool, and airy. A 
common garden frame on a stone bottom is the best 
winter quarters. 

Give them in open weather all the benefit, by totally 
uncovering. In cold north-eaat ^yeA^ ^^ «J^ ^s^'vis^ 
opposite side, by tilting. 



70 THE HANDY BOOK 

In damp weather close them up, and only water when 
they are getting almost too dry. < - 

Bloom them in size-twelve pots, in the proper soil 
Turn the ball of earth into the new pot in March or 
April, without disturbing the roots. ' Well pre^ the 
aoil round it. i ' > ■ 

Let them have a sheltered place until May, when 
they may have all the sun, rain, and wind. 

Put stakes down the centre of the pot, to tie up the 
blooming shoots as they grow ; and look to this daily. 

Always keep them moderately moist; but never 
water a little : let the water go right through the soil 
every time you give any. 

Let but one stem go up to each plant, and leave but 
three buds on each stem, not too close, to bloom freely. 

When the buds have swelled, and before they burst, 
tie them round the middle with some bast matting or 
other strong material 

When the colour shows, tear down each division of 
the calyx to the tie, that the petals may be free all 
round alike, and open equally. 

As this flower will often have the proper outside 
petals cramped up in the middle, and smtdl ones out- 
side, bring the petals into their proper places as they 
Open. 

The more tiers of perfect petals a flower has, the 
better ; but every imperfect one is better pulled away 
than left in. 

Layer all the side shoots that are long enougb, and 
pipe like pinks all those which are too short, and when 
they have struck root well, pot them the same as those 
you bought at first. 



CULTURE OF THE ANEMONE. 



Grow in soil composed of clean friable loam, and 
perfectly decomposed dung, half and half, well mixed, 
and eighteen inches deep. 



ON 0ABDENIN6. 71 

Draw drills three inches deep, six inches apart, and 
press the tubers in at the bottom the same distance 
from each other ; lay the earth close, and cover two 
inches. 

Plant in October for early blooms, and February for 
late ones ; but the autumn planted must be protected 
in severe Veather. 

When up, stir the earth among them, bruising the 
lumps, and laying the soil close to and among their 
stems. 

In very dry weather water them occasionally, but 
enough to soak the earth of the whole bed, if you have 
to repeat it ten times before you accomplish it. 

When in bloom, shading prolongs the flowering con- 
siderably. If you do not want the seed, cutting off the 
decayed flowers still assists them. 

If you desire to save seed, tie a bit of bast matting, 
or put a label to those you want to save from, and save 
none other. 

Sow seed, when it ripens, in boxes or pots, and put 
them in a cold frame. They will be up and growing 
by the spring. 

When large enough, plant them out in rows three 
inches from each other in the row, and the rows six 
inches apart, to remain till they bloom. 

Never allow a single weed to grow among them. It 
is death to the nearest, and it may be the best. 

Take up the tubers directly the leaves turn yellow, 
and dry them in the shade previous to storing them till 
the next blooming time. 



CULTURE OF THE CALCEOLARIA, 

Do you want to excel ? Save your own seed ; raise 
your own varieties, and go ahead. 

Buy three or four of the best, and no others ; bloom 
them in the open air close tog.etib£i^ ^sA \si^ ^i»5:5^ ^ 
your seed. 



72 TjaOB HAW DY BOOK 

Sow l^e seed as 60on as it is ripe in pots or pans in 
the greenhouse. Never allow the soil to get dry after- 
wards ; and when up, shade them. 

As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick 
them out round the edge of a forty-eight sized pot, an 
inch apart 

When they touch one another, pot them singly into 
sixty sized pot& Keep them near the light 

Best compost, loam fipom rotted turves, decomposed 
cow-dung, and turfy peat, in equal quantities. 

When the pots fill with roots, change them for forty- 
eights ; and a cold frame will be better than the greeur 
house, all the fine months. 

As the flowers come, let the plants be shaded ; turn 
out all that are worse than the originals. They will 
not be worth room. 

Propagate at once any that are as good as the originals, 
and different ; and, of course, all that are better. 

You want flowers as round as cherries, and the nearer 
you can find any the better. 

Propagate, by taking off the side shoots. If they are 
not already rooted, they will soon strike under glass, in 
the greenhouse or cold frame. 

In winter keep them cool, dry, and airy. In summer 
they must have shade, and plenty of water, but good 
drainage. 

CULTURE OF THE RANUNOULUa 

Never let the tubers touch raw dung. Grow them* 
in clean compost, — ^turfs rotted into mould, cow-dung 
rotted into mould, an equal quantity of each, and 
eighteen inches of it in the bed. 

They will grow in any light rich earth in well- 
drained ground ; but this may be formed many different 
ways. 

Plant them in drills drawn six inches apart, and plant 
i^m at the bottom of the drills the same distance from 
^^li other. 



ON OABDENING. 73 

Close the earth well upon the tubers, and let them 
be covered two inches, but close and solid, though not 
lammed hard. 

Plant in October for spring blooms, and February 
for summer flowering ; but the most choice and valuable 
kinds should be planted in February. 

When the plants are up, stir the earth and bruise the 
lumps, so as to lay it close about the roots and stems. 

Water in good earnest in dry weather, and shade 
from the burning sun : saturate the earth of the whole 
bed, or leave it alone. Partial watering is worse than 
none. 

Shade the flowers, to prolong them ; and if too 
numerous for the health of the tuber, cut off all after 
the first three or four that open. 

As soon as the leaves turn yellow, take up the tubers, 
dry them in the shade, and when perfectly dry, put 
them away in their boxes, secured from heat, damp, 
and frost. 

Examine the tubers occasionally in their store boxes, 
to see that they are not getting damp, or mouldiness, 
or insect of any kind, and brush them all clean. 

Turn out tha soil from the beds to sweeten, six weeks 
before you plant again ; but a new bed every year is 
the best. 

Sow seed as soon as it is ripe in pots or pans, and 
place them in a cold frame or the greenhouse. 

Sow thinly, but equally, that they may remain in the 
seed-pans the whole first season's growth. 

When the leaves decay, take up the little tubers 
carefiiUy, and in October planf them six inches apart 
like old tubers. « 

Throw away, or give away, or get rid of all that are 
not so good as you have already ; or you may save seed 
from all of them, to get rid o^ not to sow. 

Mark and describe all that are worth taking care of 
and naming, that you may secure tbaxcL ^ \aiKsss%^s% 
lame. 



74 THE HANDY BOOK 

CULTtJBB OF THE POLYANTHUS. 

EiCH and strong soil is best adapted for this favourite 
flower. They cannot prosper in compost too light 

Two-thirds loam, in which the turf has been rotted 
cut from a pasture as if for laying down, and one-third 
decomposed dung, will make a good border. 

The compost should be a foot thick, and the border 
shaded from the three or four hours of the hottest sun. 

Buy your plants small and well-rooted, before Octo- 
ber. Plant them nine inches apart on your border or 
bed, spreading the roots out, and gently pressing the 
soil on them. 

Water them in well, to settle the earth about the 
roots, and see that they never flag for want of it ; and 
soak the bed well when you water at alL 

They want no more attention, except to" prevent a 
slug from reaching them ; for slugs are destructive to 
the beauty and health of the plant. 

When they bloom, mark those you intend to save 
seed from, but take away the dead flowers from those 
that are not to seed. 

When the seed-pods turn yellow, gather them before 
they burst, and lay them by in their pods till sowing 
time, which should be April 

When the plants are past bloom they may be parted 
into as many pieces as you can make, so that a portion, 
of root and a single heart is complete in each. 

Let these be planted out immediately in the borders 
or beds where they are .to bloom ; they will soon grow 
fast 

Polyanthuses in pots require lighter soil than when 
out in the borders. Add to the usual soil one-fourth 
of its bulk in turfy peat 

Pot them as soon as they have grown into strength 
after parting ; let one-fourth of a thirty-two sized pot 
lf0 diuinage, 
-Let the soil be put in highest m tYie TaA<8\<&v ^^dA 



ON GAItDENING. 75 

spread the roots out all round; let the collar of the 
plant be even with the surface. I 

When plants are newly potted they may be as high 
pretty nearly as the edge of the pot ; the soil will sub- 
side half an inch below, which is the right height for 
permanent potting. 

These must be plunged in the border, with a hole 
reaching far below the pot, to let the draining go 
through ; or. 

Kept in a frame with a dry bottom, and only covered 
against severe frost and easterly winds; at all other 
times the glasses oE 

When the bloom begins to open, take the pots to a 
sheltered and shaded spot, to complete their flowering. 



CULTURE OP THE CINERARIA. 

Procure at blooming time half a dozen of the 
roundest and prettiest flowers you can find, all different 
in colour. 

Place these close together in the greenhouse, or in 
the open air, if the weather be fine. 

Water carefully, see the drainage all clear, watch for 
the pods of seed, and save all you can. 

Sow this directly in pans, in the greenhouse ; or you 
may start in a hotbed or stove il* you like. 

As soon as they have four leaves, prick them out 
round the edges of pots, an inch from each other. 

When they have outgrown these, pot them in sixty- 
sized pots, till they fill these small ones with roots; 
shift them then to forty-eights. 

Continue the growth in these pots till they bloom, 
when you may select a dozen better than you can buy, 
unless you are unlucky. 

Grow them in half loam, from rotted turves, a fourth 
turfy peat, and a fourth deconr^o^^^ ^io^-^Mssj^^'^ft ^ssss>% 
iroizz a meion-bed. 



76 THE HANDY BOOK 

Use the side shoots for increEising a favourite variety. 
If they are rooted they will grow directly ; if not) strike 
them under a bell-glass. 



CULTURE OP THE CAMELLIA JAPOiaCA. 

But your plants of shrubby form, dark green foliage, 
without any vacancies where leaves have been and 
dropped. 

Examine the roots in the old ball of eari^ and if 
healthy, merely keep them well supplied with moisture 
till the bloom has gone by, 

!Now the plant will want to make its growth, and it 
is the time to remove, not only ugly rambling branches, 
but all buds that are in the places where branches are 
not wanted. 

Be not a&aid of the knife ; as you can see all the 
shoots that would make branches, cut your plant into 
such form that the new growth will make it hand- 
some. 

Shift them to larger pots, and keep them in the 
greenhouse untU they have completed their new branches. 

They may then be set out in the open air, where 
they may be shaded from the mid-day sun ; here they 
will swell their bloom-buds. 

In September place them in the greenhouse, or a cold 
pit. They only require to be kept from severe frosts 
and too much wet. 

. Each year requires the same routine of treatment, 
and no part of the treatment requires more care than 
the pruning. 

Plants may be kept smaller, and closer, and hand- 
somer, by previously cutting in uncouth branches after 
blooming. 

Stocks for grafting should be strong growers ; cut- 
tings strike heeiy ; and at two years old are fit. 
To graft, cut down the stock to ai). eye, m^Jfaaxi \rw^ 



ON GAEDBNING. 77 

inches of the soil ; cut one side a little, to make a flat 
slope ; now cut a piece of wood with a leaf on it, and 
make it fit 

£ut no matter how a graft and a stock are cut ; so 
that they properly fit, and the harks meet, they are 
sure to unite. 

Inarch grafting is cutting a flat place on the stock, 
«nd another flat place on a plant that you want to graft, 
and tying the two plants together. 

When these unite, cut off the plant below the joint^ 
and all the stock above the joint The branch or bud 
of the plant united is all that must be allowed to 
grow. 

CULTURE OF THE DAHLIA. 

FiBST get your plants, the best varieties of which are 
generally found enumerated in " Glenny's Grarden 
Almanac." 

You obtain these in May ; trench your ground and 
moderately dress it, when they may be planted six feet 
apart every way. 

The best plan is to drive down your stakes, before 
planting, right through the soft trenched ground into 
the hard, and all perfectly adjusted. 

Now plant the Dahlias close to the stakes^ and at 
once release all ties and sticks that were in the pots ; 
and place the pots with a bit of moss in them on the 
top of the stakes. 

Water them in with no sparing hand ; a water-pot 
full each will be useful^ because they should want no 
moie. 

From the first day examine the pots, to destroy the 
earwigs. Every one you kill now will be better than 
twenty in a month hence, and never relax a single . 

day. 

K you want dwarf plants, take off the tops \ ^csxlvqss^ 
strike them, and make othei pVacAs oi ^iJsvssai. 



78 THE HANDY BOOK 

'As Dahlias grow, they must be carefully fastened 
to the stakes ; and if you mean to grow them in per- 
fection, you must provide four or five side stakes. 

As the plants spread, the side branches must be sup- 
ported with ties not easily broken. 

Take out all weakly branches, and thin the blooming 
buds, but do not over-prune them. 

If you grow for exhibition, and the present vulgar 
taste for large coarse blooms continues, give liquid 
manure. 

Never water without doing it effectually ; soak the 
whole ground aroimd them once a fortnight, and it will 
do more good than partial watering every day. 

Shade the blooms you want from the heat of the sun ; 
but if you want them to travel well, and be of good 
colour, never cover them from the air. 

Sow seed in March or April, in a hot-bed or stove, 
and when up, and with four leaves, prick them out 
half a dozen in a forty-eight sized pot 

Place them in the greenhouse, and give them air in 
fine weather. 

At the end of May plant them out eighteen inches 
apart, in rows three feet apart 

Support them with stakes about every eight feet, 
and one cross lath a foot from the ground, and another 
two feet six inches. 

If you have them to spare, use a stake to each, in 
preference. 

As fast as they bloom, throw away the worthless ; 
save nothing a single day that is not decidedly better 
than we possess, or as good, and different 

When the best of the bloom is over, and September 
frosts threaten, earth up all you care about, at least one 
foot 

The sooner they are out of the ground after a frost 
the better ; the stems cut to six inches, and dried in the 
shade, sterna downwards. 



ON GAEDENINa 79 



CULTURE OP THE CHRYSANTHEMUM. 

The more dwarf you can bloom these plants the 
better. Their awkward habit has to be overcome to 
make tolerable. 

In July take off all the tops of your plants at the 
third or fourth joint ; cut close up to the joint and 
strike them under a bell-glass. 

When well rooted, pot them singly in sixty-sized 
pots, with half loam from rotted turves, and half peat 
earth. 

Stand them out of doors, on a hard bottom, and see 
that they never flag an instant for want of water. 

As soon as the roots reach the sides of the pot, 
change to forty-eights ; again from forty-eights to thirty- 
twos, in which they should bloom. 

Do not remove the pots from out of doors till Sep- 
tember, and then have them close to the glass, and give 
all the air you can in mild weather. 

Meanwhile, the plants that have been topped will, 
have broken out with a greater number of shoots. 

These are fit for the borders, if they are not already 
there ; for the tops of out-of-door plants are as good as 
others. 

Even large plants ought to be brought up out of 
doors ; it is oidy for the sake of protecting and pro- 
longing the flowers that we put them under glass. 

Eoots will part into many pieces, with a shoot to 
each ; and cuttings may be struck any time. 

For fine specimens take off cuttings in ITovember 
and December, and strike them in cold frames ; as soon 
as they begin to grow take off the tops. Continue 
taking the points off the shoots, and shift as often as the 
roots grow and reach the side. They will, in time, be 
very large and bushy. 



80 TSaX HANDY BOOK 



GROWING SPECIMEN PLANTS. 

« 

Study the habit of your plant ; if shrubby, grow it 
seK-dependent ; if pendulous, make it a standard ; if 
trailing or climbing, grow it accordingly. 

To grow a pendulous plant as a shrub, so as to requii'e 
support, is unprofessional ; grow it as a standard, and 
the pendulous habit is shown to advantage. 

Grow shrubby plauts slowly, but strong ; take away 
all weak branches, stop all shoots in time, let no 
branches cross each other. 

Whatever is unnatural is bad ; it is as ridiculous to 
grow a trailing plant up a trellis as it is to let a climb- 
ing plant hang about. 

Eemember that rich compost and heat excites rapid 
growth, and that rapid growth makes long joints and 
scanty foliage. ^ 

Plants naturally long jointed should be checked as 
soon as possible in the growth, and others naturally 
short jointed should be kept growing. 

All plants require rest, and the time to give it them 
is when they have completed a season's growth. 

The way to rest a plant is to put it in the coolest 
place, and give no more water than will just keep it 
ahve, until it indicates growth again. 

Plants should always be shifted as soon as the roots 
fill the old pots, no matter what time of year. 

All plants whose pots are full of roots, when they 
begin growing after rest, should be shifted immedi- 
atdy. 

Trailing plants should hang over their pots all round ; 
climbing plants should be trained in the form of treea 

Of shrubby plants, none but ill-grown and Ul- 
managed ones require more than a centre stake. 

Climbing plants should be trained in their places 
daily ; if neglected, they make their growth the wrong 
WT8J5 and never properly recovei. 



cor GAIDEKIKO* U 

Every branch that is stopped gives out two or four 
new ones, ; bear this in mind when plants are young. 

Many plants will grow handsofiie if not grown too 
fast ; but which, if excited, grow lanky and weak, and 
want props. 



»**• 



CULTURE OP THE HYACINTH. 

The Hyacinth grows best in the open air, on one- 
third loam from rotted turvee, one-third decomposed 
cow-dung, and one-third sand. 

Plant three inches deep, and six inches apart, in beds 
four feet wide, and alleys Mteen inches to walk on. 

If you wairt to grow the bed in diversified colours, 
make some kind of arrangement before you plant. 

You need not protect them against frost, wind, wet^ 
or sun, until the spikes of buds show. 

Cover them agamst aH extremes Until the bloom is 
over, when they should have all the weather. 

If you do not want seed, cut off all the pips befote 
they can begin to swell their pods ; If you want seed, 
let them alone. 

Let Hyacinths be in the ground, or in pots, of bt 
water, before you can see any symptom Of growth or 
swelling of the root. 

Pot and glass in October, and keep them in a cellar, 
or at least in the dark, where it is dry, and free from 
frost, until the end of ]N^ovember. 

The roots will have made themselves, and both pots 
And glasses may be either forced or allowed to grow 
naturally. 

As soon as potted or glassed Hyacinths are past 
IbloonL plant them aH in the open borders or beds, the 
potted ones wilhout disturbing 1^ balls of earth 

The glass bulbs must be laid against a slope^ the roottf 
spread and carefully covered, two inches abovQ tjsA. 
bulb. 



88 THB HAin)T BOOK 

Sow seed in pans or pots in November, and takci np 
eyery year as the grass turns yellow. 

Beplant at the beginning of October, and continue 
it- till they bloom, wMch wUl be in four or five seasons 
perhaps. 

Carefully preserve all A>ulbs^ young and old, while 
they are in store, lest damp, or frosty or heat should 
hurt them. ^ 



OULTUBE OF THE BALSAIC 

Sow seed on light rich earth, part in March, April, 
and May, and put it in the stove or hot-bed. 

When up, an4 before it has the second leaves, prick 
them out singly in thumb-pots, and keep them near 
the glass. 

As soon as the roots fill these, change them to 
sixties, and from sixties to forty-eights. * 

As soon as the forty-eights are full of roots, change 
to thirty-twos, and ultimately to twenty-fours, six- 
teens, and even larger. 

Always keep as near the light as possible, give them 
as much air and heat as possible, avoid drawing them 
up by shading. 

When they begin to open their flowers shade them 
from the heat of the sun, and give them plenty of 
room, for if placed too close they will draw. 

The seed of balsams is pretty constant, if you keep 
them together in distinct colours. 

As soon as you can see any of them semi-double or 
single, turn them out from the best plants ; let none but 
the best occupy the best places^ 

• The Balsam continues growing as long as you pick off 
the buds ; the first should always be picked off until 
^ey come on the side branches. 



ON GABBENINO*: ^ 



OULTUBB OF THE Q£RAKIUM« 

Use moderately good soil, but no nostrums. Loam 
from rotted turves, dung from an old hot-bed, veil 
deccmiposed, and peat earth, equal parts, will grow thena 
weE . 

Pot struck cuttings, or the small plants that you buy 
as soon as you get them; use forty-eight sized pots, 
pot them as low as the bottom leaf. ; 

Take off the tops, or pinch them out, so that only 
the two pair of bottom leaves are left on. These wil} 
throw out three or four shoots. 

As soon as these shoots grow two joints or three, 
pinch out the end buds, and it will cause other laterals 
to grow. 

Change the pots as soon as they are full of roots 
to size thirty-two, and if necessary to dwarf them, sink 
them lower in the pot. 

'Now merely pinch out the ends of such roots a^ 
seem inclined to take the lead, and so keep your plant 
in form. 

All this time let them be in the greenhouse, or if 
the weather permit, out of doors. 

When they are pushing for bloom, they must bp 
placed close to the lights, inside the house, where they- 
can have air. 

Have a shade for the house, so that during the bloom 
they may be protected from the extreme heat of tho 
sun. > 

After the bloom is over, set them out of doors, and 
when they are a little hardened, which will be the end 
of June or in July, they may be cut back. 

In pruning the Geranium, cut it back to a good 
shaped skeleton, which will break into a bushy plant. * 

Put the cuttings in, under a hand-glass, in the 
common border, where they can be shaded ; keei^ thaisa. 
moist and cover thenu 



M THS HARDf BOOK 

The old plants may be trimmed at the roots, if neces- 
sary, and re-potted in the same or larger pots. 

In September they may be all placed in the house, 
and the struck cnttingB potted as directed 'at first. 

If yon save seed, let liie plants yon wish to save 
from be placed iogefiker out GidooiB, aid be well watched 
and watered. 

Sow the seed at the b^inning of the year, and 
wh^i up prick them ont round the edge of a pot^ an 
inch or an inch and a half apart 

When they have 'grown large enough, pot them 
singly, and treat them as you would struck cut- 
tings. 



CULTUBE OF THE FUCHSIA. 

Grow this plant slowly. If excited, it cannot bear 
its own weight, and becomes an ungainly object, re- 
quiring sticks and ties to hold it in its place. 

When you first obtain your pknti^ which will be 
generally little more than struck cuttings, put them in 
pots Tery little larger than will take the roots. 

Use one-third loam and two-third» peat, and if you 
want close bushy plants, take off the' topa. 

Top any shoots that appear to take Hie load in ibo 
growth, and generally keep your plant in shape by 
timely stopping vigorous shoots. 

Keep them always in a cool house, give them plenty 
of room, plenty of air and water. 

If the habit of any plant be weakly or pendulous, 
grow it as a standard, that the temches may hang 
gracefully. 

Grow no yarieties that reqxdre sticks to support 
them ; such additions are unworthy of plant growera 

Cuttings strike freely under a bell-glass, at every 
season of the year ; in summer on a shady border, in 
winter in a cold pit or in a greenbouae. 



ON gabskbunq. 8S 

Shade the blooms from the mid-day sim, but they 
are not to be excluded &om the li^t nunrdngs and' 
eveningB. • 

Shiftmg firom one pot to another fihouki be only done 
when the pots are ftdl of roots. 

When the bloom is CfveT, let tiio plants rest, and 
give no water, except once or twice during the whoitt 
winter. 

As soon as they indicate growth again by the bods 
swelling, spur the plants ; make allowance for the growth 
of new wood, and prune the plant, so that it will grow 
to a good shape. 

If placed in the open air as soon as the weather will 
permit, the plants grow all the stronger for it : far the 
most handsome for autumn shows. 



CULTURE OF THB TBOP^OLUIC 

This family is a family of climbers. Never attempt 
to grow any of them without support 

The best support is the branch of a tree, of the form 
of a whole tree or bush, unless lor out of doors, when 
they may cover a walL 

Some of the most rambling and coarse may be made 
to cover palings or a fence, or even the front of lEb 
house. 

Others, more delicate, must be grown in pots ; and 
find for these the branch of a shrub that will of itself 
form a pretty object. 

Tropseolum tricolor, T. brachyceras, T. azureus, as 
well as some others, should be grown in peat earth 
and loam firom rotted turves, and be trained np as 
they grow. 

These, and climbing plants generally, must be trained 
as &6t as they grow, for if ne^W.^/^ ^Je^K^ "^ssk ^o^ss«^ 
difficult to ac^just^ and nevet ^co^ «» ^<^* 



89 THJS H4NBT BOOK 

V They may all be potted first in small pots, and 
(flianged from small to larger. 

The branch or trellis must be put when they are in 
tflie thirty-two sized pot, and be removed with the plant 
when igain shifted. 

t All the species are greenhouse or half-hardy, and 
when Once established will grow out of doors. 

Most strike fix>m cuttings under a bell-glass, and 
lorm bulbs, which increase in size each season. 



I CULTURE OF THE STOOK. 

r ' • 

Of all the species and varieties which are comprised 
in this extensive family choose the best. 

Sow the seeds in boxes, pots, or pans, according to 
the season you require them to bloom. 

When they are up let them be watered regularly, as 
they want it until they have four growing leaves ; then 
ilhade them and starve them until they almost turn 
yellow. 

f Kow plant them in nch soil, half loam &om rotted 
turves, one-fourth dung &om an old hot-bed, and one- 
fourth turfy-peat 

f ' Water profusely, but not often : the theory is that 
starving causes the failure of the stamens, and the 
substitution of petals. 

' Without subscribing to this, we know that the above • 
treatment is successful with all the German varieties, 
the intermediates, and the biennial kinds. 
f They cannot be bloomed in soil too rich, so it be 
elean. If the common garden mould is used, fork in 
fiix-inch thickness of decomposed dung into the top 
apit. 

) Save seed from the best of the single ones among 
Hiw double^ because that has a strong tendency to 
doublenesa, aud is only an esoape. 



ON OAEBENINa. 8$^ 

; As soon as eight or ten pods of seed have set^ xe^ 
move all the rest of the plant ; let it neither grow not 
bloom any more. 

Bringing a single stock oi a bad breed to plant 
among an acre of double, will not give better seed than 
if it bloomed alone, or with a thousand as single as 
itself 



CULTUBB OF THB AZAIMIl INDICA« 

This exceedingly gaudy family must be grown in 
loam, turfy peidi, and dung from a melon-bed^ in equal 
parts. 

Set your small plants in a size that will only jjast 
take the roots, and give a little space all round for 
compost. 

Drain one-fourth of the pot with crocks, and spread 
out the roots, with the collar just at the surface. 
. As the small pots fill with roots, shift the plants to 
larger, and if you want short stocky plants, pinch out 
the leading shoots. 

If the habit of the plant be bushy or handsomely 
pyramidal, let it grow its own way. 

Keep them in. the greenhouse, as near the light as 
you can ; turn them round occasionally, and never let 
them flag for water. 

Whenever you water, apply it till it saturates all the 
soil in the pot ; you then know every fibre is 
fed. 

If the shoots are too thick, and fill up the heart of 
the plant too much^ remove all that are in a wrong 
place. 

When you want to grow them as standards, select 
those inclined to be tall, and continue taking off the 
lower side branches. 

Keep a sort of head all the way it goes, only remov- 
ing the lower ones as others come^ to ibx<yN ^'^ ^qjjsw^^ 
of the plant into tha top* 



88 Xn HAITDI BOOK 

. Wb^n jtoU cnoQgh, pincli the ends off all ibe sboots, 
to encourage luler^l bianpbea. 

If these be not enough to foim a good bead, pineh 
out the ends agun, ana this will 9timulat9 otbm to 
i^oot 

In dwetrfsy pyi^onids, 07 stmidards, always check any 
shoot that inclmes to take the lead. 

After flowering, and before plants make their firesh 
growth, use the knife ; spur in all ill-shaped branches, 
cut freely back, so that the new growth may form a 
bimdaome ^ree or ^iurub. 

Xbe young wood taken off when an inch long, close 
down to the old wood, strikes ficeely in sand under a 
bell-gla^a 



CVhTUUR OF THE JBTS. 

Tsm numerous species of Iris, which grow in the 
open ground, want good, rich, light soil 

Plcuit bulbous-rooted in October, three inches deep 
from the sur^EU^, and press the earth well about the 
roots, 

Part tuberous-rooted, and plant the tubers well under 
ground, with one or more strcmg hearts to each portion 
of tuber. 

Take up bulbous roots as soon as the tops of the 
leayes turn yellow. 

Bemove and part tuberous-rooted once in three 
years, not more frequently. 

The free-seeding ones tempt us to sow for new va- 
rieties; but unless many sorts are grown together^ 
there is not much hope of change. 

Sow in the autumn, and when the plants come up^ 
before the frosts are over, protect a little while young, 
from the sun as much as from the frost 

Jhejr maj die down the first year, or at least com*» 
plete their growth without being distocbed. 



/ Pltmt six inches apart, in a hei of ureil-dreased soQy 
and there let them leniain dll they blooxnu 

Weeds are death to seedlings ; let not one lire smong 
them. 



CULTURE 07 THE AMiJlTLLia 

Althouoh these comprise stove, greenhoxisey frame 
and hardy plants, there is one rule applies to aU ; whea 
they have completed their growth, let them rest. 

When the stove and greenhouse varieties have 
bloomed, and the leaves b^n to turn yellow, give them 
no more water. 

. When they of themselves indicate moving, shift them 
carefully into new compost, and, if necessary, larger 
pots, and set them going. 

When they are growing, water liberally, keep them 
near the lights, and turn the pots if they draw too much 
one way. 

When the hardy ones have bloomed, and begin to 
die down, take up the bulbs and house them like others. 

The stove Amaryllis may be flowered at any time, 
and is very easily forced ; but in a collection it is better 
to let them have their own way. 

Many, for the sake of security against acddisntal 
watering, turn the pots on their sides ; this is neither 
good nor harm. 



PERENNIALS AND BIENNIALS. 

In planting the roots, always take care that there is 
a good shoot or heart to every piece of root 

In planting them out, always give plenty of room ; 
say for small things, six inches, larger niue, and for the 
largest, space in proportion. 

Part the roots of HoIiy\icwi\Lts a^NVM8.,\Ss^R»» ^ *^ias. 



00 THB HAMBT BOOK 

Yalley, Agapanthiis^ Chinmey and other Campanulas, 
YioletSy Daisies, Sweet Williaans, Lnpinns, Columbines^ 
and such like. 

Take slips from all such as do not spread their roots/ 
as double "Wallflowers, Antirrhinums, &c. 

But many will seed freely, and you have a chance of 
new varieties ; therefore always raise seedlings if you 
can. 

Seed of all these various families should be sown, 
about April, May, or June ; plant them out as soon a» 
they are large enough. 

Many of these wiU bloom the first season, and those 
which are only half-hardy must be potted and kept in 
frames. 



HARDY FLOWERING BULBS. 

Plant or remove all bulbs, when the foliage has died 
and before it begins to grow again. 
• Plant all bulbs on well-drained ground, rich in vege- 
table manure, and with good friable loam, but not with 
dung, unless it be thoroughly decomposed to mould. 

All bulbs suffered to grow or spear before they are 
planted are generally weakened by it 

Many bulbs suffer by being left in the groiind after 
dying down, being subject to attacks from insects ; never 
leave anything but Crocuses and Snowdrops a day 
longer than necessary. 

Keep all bulbs not in the ground perfectly free from 
cold, heat, and wet 

Dry all bulbs well in the shade before putting them 
away. 

Keep the sur£Ekce stirred after bulbs have come up,^ 
and let not a weed get among them. 

Whatever blooms are worth prolonging, should be 
shaded from the heat of the sun. 
Almost all bulbs larger than Ciocwa^ 3iUo^dxo^ 



ON GAKDENINQij 91 

And ScillaSi may be planted six inches apart : these 

thiee do best in patches about the boideis. 

. Lilies and Crown Imperials are best in the borders. 

Encourage hardy bulbs; they are showy, they in- 
crease without trouble, they want little or no culture. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 

Plant all kinds of trees and shrubs with the coUar of 
the root only just below the surfsice. 

Always loosen the ground all round, and when you 
plant, spread out the roots on all sides, and treacT solid. 

Whatever you* lose by bad removing at the root, fail 
not to compensate for by cutting away branches. 

iN'ever put in a morsel of root that is bruised ; cut 
every damage off clean with a sharp knife. 

K you plant potted trees or shrubs with the balls 
matted in the pot, release it aU by soaking, or some 
other means, and spread out the roots. 

Stake every plant, so that no wind can stir it ; for to 
be drawn backwards and forwards after good sound 
planting, is to break and bruise all the roots. 

K the earth is not sufl&ciently damp when you plant, 
water the plants in at any sacrifice. 

In pruning trees and shrubs, remember that a clean 
cut is indispensable ; and some regard should be had to 
the shortening of any unruly and ill-growing branches. 

The time to prune a tree is when it has settled down^ 
as it were, after the season's growth; and before it 
starts again. 

. Attention should be paid to the probable new growth, 
and the old wood should be cut in to allow for this. 

Layering for propagation should be performed in 
autumn ; those which will grow from cuttings should 
be propagated at the same time. 

Grafting for propagation should be perfoimftd \a. 
spimg, when neither stock hot: acvoTv^ci3^^"S5?»s3^*^ S^'55^^^ 



dS TUB ISLAMDl BOOK 

, Seeds of ConifeiB, buries of tiJioms, hollidfl^ ^, ind 
tree seeds gen^nllj, should be sown in aatumn ; not 
too thick, because lliey should haTB their irst year's 
growth without moving. 

In planting out give ample room, nothing sooner 
spoils a tree than crowding ; and if this be done while 
young, they do not get over it for years, if at alL 

When they grow so as to nearly touch, replant at 
greater distances, or take out every alternate plants and 
make a new plantation ; bettei^ however^ to remove alL 



THE KirOHBN QASDWSf^ 

Fob a private &mily, have no full crops of perishable 
articles ; rather have a succession of anaJl ones. 

Grow plenty of everyUiing that remains in season for 
a time, and that will keep after harvesting. 

Carrots, Turnips, Beet-root, ParEoiipe, Leeks, Onions, 
Eed Cabbage, and su<^ other crops as will last a long 
while iti the ground, and preserve well 

Never be deficient of the various pot-herbs, salads, 
and such things as are of uncertain demand : they take 
little TocMtn. 

Ehubarb will grow in the open air, and force in a 
cellar, or in boxes in the stoke-hole, uxuler the stage of 
a house, or in any comer : never neglect it 

Garden Peas are universal &vourites. Be particular 
in your sorts and seasons. Make provision for a con- 
tinued succession. Sow a few every month, from 
January to June. 

Beet-root is a valuable store, it will keep a long time ; 
never neglect a crop that is so useful all the winter. 

Cultivate Potatoes, * both approved varieties and 
seedlings, with attention ; and as there is greet room to 
improve the sorts for earliness, raise some from seed. 

Ya^table Marrow should be raised in heat, and 
planted out in June, 



ON GAlDENIlVGk 98 

Onions, one of the staple crops of the kitchen garden, 
and used the year round, want regular attention. 



BTOVB PLANT& 



iN'EyER subject the plants to great changes of tempe- 
lature, and always accompany high temperature with 
moisture. 

Always shift your plants to larger potd when the 
roots touch the sides of the old ones* 

Never use exciting composts; most stove plants 
would actually come to less harm in peat alone than in 
rich soil 

Attend daily to the training of your climbers ; give 
air every opportunity when the temperature is high 
enough, but ihe house must not be allowed to cool 
suddenly. 

As most plants require a little difference in their 
management, they must be treated oi separately, as well 
as collectively, but never let them want watering. 



THE OBEEN-HOUSE AND CONSEBVATOBT. 

Givs all ih» air you eas, consistent with the plants 
to be taiken eaie o£ 

Water no more frequently than is absolutely neces- 
sary ; but do it effectually when you attempt it. 

Never use the fire or artificial heat when you can 
avoid it The frost may often be kept out by covering. 

Particular plants may require .partksukr traafcawwit ; 
bat none ov^t to be grown rapidly. 

Many favourite plants deserve particular notice^ and 
we shall refer to full instructions as regards several 
worth separate' study. 



raS HANDT BOOK 



GOLDEN RULES FOR GARDENERS. 

Nkyui work with bad tools. The difference between 
tk^ wi>rk done in a month would buy a set of new ones. 

Nt^vw give up a place to better yourself until you 
M^ »ttT^ of the new one, and certain that it is better. 

H^ve a place for every tool, and never leave one out 
\\f it* jilace : or to go fiirther, " a place for everything, 
mh) t»Yt>rything in its place." 

l^ike every niorsel of waste off the vegetables for the 
kiloh^m ; it is so much trouble saved to the cook, and 
•0 much manure for the garden. 

Uaixlenera should be paid welL It is cheaper in the 
<Mid to make a man easy in his mind : he does his work 
batter when he is not pinched in his circumstances. 

Gardeners should always recollect this with all the 
men under them — Four men at fifteen shillings per 
week will do more and do better than five men at 
twelve. 

Answer all letters directly you receive them, even if 
you have to refuse a favour solicited.. . 

Mind your own affairs. Let all the errors you see in 
oth^r management suggest corrections in your own. 

Never interfere with household matters. Supply 
what is asked for in the best way you can, without 
troubling your head about what it is for, or who has it 
afterwards. 

Keep strict accounts of all you supply to the house ; 
in case of complaint, the reference may be useful. 

Keep a journal of gardening, with memorandums of 
when everything is sown, planted, and cut or gathered 
house; with as many other particulars as you 



^^ 



ON QABDENING. 9S 

Never leave off work or superintending, until the 
hour at which the men leave off; and always be on the 
ground again at the hour of their coming back. 

A master gardener over many men can do more good 
with his eyes than with his hands. Strict superintend- - 
ence is more valuable than hard work. 

Make every man before he goes to work perfectly 
understand how you wish it done. His way may not 
be yours, and yet both proper. 

. If a neighbouring gardener has failed in a crop, help 
him all you can with yours. It may be your case the 
nestt year. 

As regards the £tmily matters, " hear all, see all, and 
say nothing." You cannot then be mixed up with any 
household squabbles or disagreements. 

Be punctual in all things. Attend appointments to 
the instant : rather go unprepared, or with a thing half 
done, than be a moment behind time. 

" Begin nothing of which thou hast not well con- 
sidered the end." To find we cannot complete what 
we begin is very awkward. 

Send your employer to the best market for every- 
thing : or if left to you, let no temptation remove your 
dealings from those who have served well, or induce to 
try again if served ilL 

Be careful in the matter of perquisites. Waste or 
excess, or good nature to others, has often deprived a 
man altogether of many comforts intended to be enjoyed 
in moderation. 

Never do an act of business on a Sunday that could 
be done on Saturday, or Monday, without injury. 
Watering could always be avoided : giving air, perhaps^ 
cannot be. 

Have every tool and implement locked up on Satur- 
day night, and never let them out again till Monday 
morning. 

Works of necessity to prevent iniury osajI -^-^i^yi. vsx?^ 
alone to be pardoned on a SaXibaSbu Ttva t^'^\»Ss. ^^^jss^ 



06 THE HANDY BOOK OK GARDENING. 

M37 to all mm, even if W6 look to notlimg more 
seiious. 

Be always in tlie garden belbre the men under you. 
Sample goes ftutthev thaxk precept or severity. 

In ytmr evcmingSy read well-authenticated works on 
science ; but gardening in portdctilan Ton will can-* 
istani^y feam something. 

If you have reason to believe you have raised some^ 
thing new and good, giert some disint^^ted sound 
opinion as soon as you can« We are all too partial to 
our own works to m^ t&e bad poiniis. 

Study well the " Properties of Mowers and Plants,'* 
and act upon them in all your judgments, whether 
passed upon your own or other people's subjects. 

Have no concerns witii evenings at pubfic-hoases^ 
A monthly meeting of gardeners to discuss modes of 
ptac^ee and furthcg^ mutual interests may be good. 

K your employer has stiai]^ whioffi^ humour theuL 
If he has unreasonable expectations, let th^n corriect 
^emselves. Do your best : he will soon see his error*' 

Attend to no complaints of each oth^ among yottf 
men, ei^cept so &r as to watch v^ilontiy who is in fault 

Do nothing earelessfy. Whatiever is worth growing 
should be grown well^ be it ever so common. If yon 
do not like a thing enough to take pains with it^ da 
not grow it at alL 

Learn from those only who have practised what they 
teach. Theories laid down by persons who write from 
what they have read are generally* false. 

Nsver be afraid of trying estperiments ; every time 
yon fail, you leanu We often derive instruction from 
tl^&ilureof our trii^ 

The most humble practical gardener can often teach 
you more than the most popular authors. Listen 
alwi^a wil^ patience to any account of their doings. 



B. CLAT, Fauniiay twuat wwn uuu 



n 



pMB^iM 



5fe 



®lotl\s l>B •!!< i'™' *'" 



IHB GABBENEE-S EVEEY-DAY BOOK. 

1 

GlEHHTSCtJWUEEOF'rHEEOSE. J 

! GlXHNirSCULIDBEOTTHEJJLHSY. I 
GliiNHTS CnLTOBE O^I^^ ^^^ | 

luVw^X^''"'''-'*''""'"""^'"'"""'' "" I 

i GI^H«T8Cm.T^E0FTHETm^- 
OLBHHTS OTILTTOE OP THE VINE, 






LOKBOS